Report: LPSC 0912
Report: IPNO-09-01

MURE,

MCNP Utility for Reactor Evolution

User Guide - Version 1.9


Image logo_mure

April 2013

Main Contributors :

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup O. Méplan (alias PTO), LPSC Grenoble
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup J. Wilson (alias JW), IPN Orsay
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup A. Bidaud (alias le bid), LPSC Grenoble
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup S. David (alias GTS), IPN Orsay
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup N. Capellan (alias Nico la Star), LPSC Grenoble
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup B. Leniau (alias BLG), IPN Orsay
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup A. Nuttin (alias Nut), LPSC Grenoble
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Frantisek Havluj, UJV, Czech Republic
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Radim Vocka, UJV, Czech Republic
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup and in the past:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup R. Chambon (alias Le caribou), LPSC, Grenoble, now back to Canada
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup F. Michel-Sendis (alias FMS), IPN Orsay, Now @CEA
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup F. Perdu (alias WEC), LPSC, Grenoble, Now @CEA
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup L. Perrot, IPN Orsay

See also the FAQ


Contents

Introduction

The main aim of the MURE[1,2] package is to perform nuclear reactor time-evolution using the widely-used particle transport code MCNP[3] (a Monte Carlo code which is mostly written in FORTRAN). Many depletion codes exist for determining time-dependent fuel composition and reaction rates. These codes are either based on solving Boltzman equation using deterministic methods or based on Monte-Carlo method for neutron transport. Among them, one has to cite MCNPX/CINDER 90[4], MONTEBURN[5], KENO/ORIGEN[6], MOCUP[7], MCB[8], VESTA/MORET[14,15],... which provide neutron transport and depletion capabilities. However, the way to control (or interact with ) the evolution are either limited to specific procedure and/or difficult to implement.

In MURE, due to the Object-oriented programming, any user can define his own way to interact with evolution. Moreover, MURE provides a simple graphical interface to visualize the results. It also provides a way to couple the neutronics (with or without fuel burn-up) and thermal-hydraulics using either an open source simple code developed in MURE (BATH, Basic Approach of Thermal Hydraulics) or a sub-channel 3D code, COBRA-EN[10,11]. But MURE can also be used just as an interface to MCNP to build geometries (e.g. for neutronics experiments simulation).

MURE is based on C++ objects allowing a great flexibility in the use1.1. There are 3 main parts in this library:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Definition of the geometry, materials, neutron source, tallies, ...
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Construction of the nuclear tree, the network of links between neighbouring nuclei via radioactive decays and nuclear reactions.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Evolution of some materials, by solving the corresponding Bateman's equations.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Thermal-hydraulics: it couples neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and, if needed, fuel evolution.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Part 1 can be used independently of the 2 others; it allows "easy" generation of MCNP input files by providing a set of classes for describing complex geometries. The ability to make quick global changes to reactor component dimensions and the ability to create large lattices of similar components are two important features that can be implemented by the C++ interface. It should be noted that some knowledge of MCNP is very useful in understanding the geometry generation philosophy.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Part 2 builds the specific nuclear tree from an initial material composition (list of nuclei). The tree of each "evolving"1.2 nucleus is created by following the links between neighbours via radioactive decay and/or reactions until a self-consistent set of linked nuclei is extracted. Nuclei with half-lives very much shorter than the evolution time steps, could be removed from the tree; mothers and daughters of these removed nuclei are re-linked in the correct way. Part 2 can also be used independently of the other two parts to process cross-sections for MCNP at the desired temperature.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Part 3 simulates the evolution of the fuel within a given reactor over a time period of up to several years, by successive steps of MCNP calculation and numerical integration of Bateman's equations. Each time MCNP is called, the reactor fuel composition will change due to the fission/capture/decay process occurring inside. Changes in geometry, temperature, external feeding or extraction during the evolution can also be taken into account. Obviously this part is not independent of the 2 others1.3 (see figure 1.1).

Figure 1.1: Principle of fuel evolution in MURE.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics{fig/evolution_scheme}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Part 4 consists of coupling the Oak Ridge National Laboratory code COBRA-EN (COolant Boiling in Rod Arrays) with MURE. COBRA is a sub-channel code that allows steady-state and transient analysis of the coolant in rod arrays. The simulation of flow is based on a three or four partial differential equations : conservation of mass, energy and momentum vector for the water liquid/vapor mixture (optionally a fourth equation can be added which tracks the vapor mass separately). The heat transfer model is featured by a full boiling curve, comprising the basic heat transfer regimes : single phase forced convection, sub-cooled nucleate boiling, saturated nucleate boiling, transition and film boiling. Heat conduction in the fuel and the cladding is calculated using the balance equation.
The use of this package requires the following installation:
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup a C++ compiler (mandatory). MURE is developed using gcc (all version between 2.96 and 4.7 are known to work perfectly).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup MCNP or MCNPX (mandatory, available at the NEA DataBank & RSICC).

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Nuclear data files process for MCNP (ACE format) and/or NJOY to process ENDF files into the ACE format (Nuclear data in ACE format are mandatory).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup COBRA-EN for the thermal-hydraulic part (available the atNEA DataBank & RSICC)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The ROOT graphical tools developed at CERN (http://root.cern.ch) is necessary if user wants to use the post treatment GUI tools. In the GUI, radiotoxicity of fuel/waste can be calculated and plotted if the LAPACK library is installed (Linear Algebra PACKage, see http://www.netlib.org/lapack/index.html or standard LINUX repositories (Redhat, Fedora, Ubuntu, ...) for pre-installed versions)
At present, MURE has only been compiled and tested on LINUX/UNIX platforms.

Installation

Compilation

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Uncompress the archive file where you want to install MURE source.

tar zxvf MURE_XX.tgz

or

gunzip MURE_XX.tgz ; tar xvf MURE_XX.tar

This will create the "data", "documentation", "examples", "gui", "lib", "source" and "utils" directories in the MURE directory.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Configure and Compile MURE

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup A bash script is given in the MURE directory

./install.sh -h : full flag option

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup main options are

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup -MCNP-version=Num where Num is the MCNP version (or its ACE data format) ; Num can be either 4 (for MCNP 4 (MCNPX <2.5) compiled with 32 bit data) or 5 (for MCNP 5 (or MCNPX $ \ge$2.5) compiled with 64 bit data. MCNP Version 5 is the default.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup -ENSDF-path=path where path is a valid directory path (absolute or relatif) to ENSDF main directory files ; these optional data can be obtained at http://ie.lbl.gov/databases/ensdfserve.html, download the "Complete ENSDF database" and unzip it in /path_to_ENSDF_data/ENSDF.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Quick install (with the default MCNP 5 version for binary ACE data format 64 bits)

./install.sh 

This script will create a config directory that contains Makefile.config and config.hxx necessary for all Makefiles and MureHeader.hxx respectively. Then, it compiles "external" libraries (ValErr and mctal) and the MUREpkg library and put them in "MURE/lib". These libraries are shared libraries.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Set the LD_LIBRARY_PATH (or SHLIB_PATH on HP-UX or LIBPATH on AIX)

in tcsh/csh

setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH "${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}:/path_to_MURE/MURE/lib"

or in bash/sh

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH="${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}:/path_to_MURE/MURE/lib"

Remarks on MCNP/makxsf compilation

In MURE, the access to ACE MCNP cross-sections is done for different purposes (find if cross-sections exist, find the total cross-sections in order to write in MCNP input file only "significant nucleus" (see 4.1.6), use of "multi-group flux" evolution method (see item 4 of section 6.3), ...). The use of binary ACE files improves the reading time (and also the disk space necessary to store the cross-sections). In C/C++, reading/writing in unformatted files (binary) is done by reading records of 1 byte long. But some FORTRAN compilers such as IFORT of Intel read/write in unformatted file with 4 bytes records. Thus if you want to use such a compiler for MCNP/makxsf you have to force the record length in unformatted files to be 1 byte. In the Intel IFORT compiler this is done via the -assume byterecl flag of ifort command line.

Building files for evolution

In this section, it is explained how to build the 2 necessary files BaseSummary.dat and AvailableReactionChart.dat (these files are not provided in the districution). One supposes that a user has a standard MCNP5 ENDF B6 base provided with MCNP5 and that the user converts the ASCII version into a binary one with the "makxsf" of MCNP. The result of this will be a xsdir file and the nuclear data in binary located in /path_2_ace_files directory (Verify that in the xsdir the absolute path to data files is present).

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then go to MURE/utils/datadir.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Compile the ExtractXsdir.cxx file (compilation line is at the end of the file).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then run it with "ExtractXsdir"

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Answer ENDFB to the first question
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup 6.8 to the second one
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup /path_2_ace_files/xsdir to the third one
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup and STD to the last one.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup After a while the BaseSummary.dat is created and contains the following

1    1    0 ENDFB  6.1  293.62  .24c  STD    1001.24c 0.999170 /path_2_ace_files/la150n2 0 2 1 10106 4096 512 2.5301E-08 

...

1    1    0 ENDFB  6.1  293.62  .66c  STD    1001.66c 0.999170 /path_2_ace_files/endf66a2 0 2 1 10128 4096 512 2.5301E-08 

...

92   235  0 ENDFB  6.1  293.62  .66c  STD  92235.66c 233.025000 /path_2_ace_files/endf66c2 0 2 6899 722105 4096 512 2.5301E-08 ptable 

...

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then compile (compilation line at the end of the file) and run CheckReaction
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup copy AvailableReactionChart.dat and BaseSummary.dat in MURE/data
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Now you can run any examples of MURE.

Running some examples

The directory MURE/examples contains commented examples on howto use MURE. A README file suggests an order to execute examples. For each example, a compilation line is put at the end of the file. Here, 2 examples are described ; other examples are described in this User Guide (see for example, § 3.8.1, 3.8.2, 3.8.3 and 3.5).

In this directory, one finds static examples (i.e. without burn-up calculations) and their outputs1.4 (in MURE/examples/Output/ directory). To run some of these examples you must provide an MCNP xsdir file, whereas for other ones user has to build the BaseSummary.dat and AvailableReactionChart.dat files. The "evolution" examples are in MURE/examples/Evolution/ directory. Again you will find an "Output" directory that contains directory output of the examples (also gzip). In these result directories, one has suppressed the MCNP "o" and "m" files but left the MCNP input files as well as the MURE results files.

basic MURE possibilities

This example (MURE/examples/Putin_example.cxx) shows basic geometrical methods.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup One first builds 2 Materials (Graphite & Fuel).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then one defines the Shapes: they are just geometrical shapes ; in the example, one uses only Sphere.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The "put in" operator is used to put 3 spheres like Russian dolls: Smallest and Small are called Inside Shapes of Medium.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then, this Medium "matrioshka" is duplicated with the Shape::Clone() method: the Medium2 clone is an exact copy of Medium: it contains a small sphere which contains a smaller one.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Medium and Medium2 shapes are then translated (with their inside shapes) and then put in the Big sphere.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then, Cells are built (MCNP cells): it associates a Shape with a Material. The exterior (outBig cell) is void and one has to specify a zero neutron importance because neutrons will not be followed (default importance is 1). One has to build all Cells for all Shapes:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup for Medium, Small and Smallest shapes, it is easy because they have been explicitly declared
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Medium2 being a clone of Medium, it has also 2 inside shapes: thus one has to define cells for these inside shapes: one access to Shape::GetOriginalInsideShape() ; by convention, the most inner inside shape has the index 0, then the next one has the index 1, and so on.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup And finally, the MCNP file is built ; default name is "inp".

Fuel Evolution in a Sphere

The aim of this example1.5 of evolution (MURE/examples/Evolution/EvolvingSphere.cxx) is to show basic burn-up calculation in MURE. The example describes a 50cm radius sphere with a inner sphere (R=30cm) of metal uranium, a middle ring (thickness=10cm) of UOx fuel and an external water reflector (thickness=10cm). The water will not evolve with time ; the thermal power of this "reactor" is 100 MW and it is kept constant for the whole evolution performed from t = 0 to t = 3 years.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The file begins with some general MURE settings: DATADIR, Temperature precision, Fission Product selection, ...
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then 3 Materials are built: the water will not evolve whereas the metal and oxide uranium are evolving Materials.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then Shapes are defined (the 3 spheres and the exterior of the "reactor").
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The Cell part associates Shapes and Materials.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then one defines an isotropic, mono-energetic neutron source to run in critical mode (KCODE).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The directory for the evolution is set (where MCNP files and evolution results will be written). The "r" files of MCNP will be removed (they are in general not useful and very large).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup One important function concerning reactor evolution is to be called here : it is the thermal power at which evolution is to be simulated. This value is set using the gMURE->SetPower() where the argument must be in watts. (c.f. Steady-state Power Normalization in § D.1).
NOTE: For other applications or if the user already knows which neutron flux he wants to simulate, no power needs to be entered here but a tally normalization factor must then be specified. This Tally Normalization Factor can be set directly through the gMURE->SetTallyNormalizationFactor()method.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then one defines the 12-1=11 time steps at which a MCNP run is done, in a vector. The first MCNP step is indeed at time t=0 and is not defined in the vector. The evolution is performed up to the end but the last MCNP run is just the antepenultimate time step. This is important to know because this means the last values for keff, fluxes, cross-sections are not MCNP values: for keff the last value considered is the antepenultimate one.

MURE Package structure

The distribution package contains:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The PDF version of this user guide.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup A complete useful description of each class (headers)
The general structure of main MURE's classes is shown in figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2: Main class structure of MURE. Main attributes are shown in blue. A Shape_ptr is only a typedef of Reference_ptr for a Shape. Idem for Nucleus_ptr.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[scale=0.8]{fig/classe}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

As it can be seen in figure 1.2, the link between classes is assured by the main class MURE.

MURE class

The MURE class is some kind of super class that handles connections between all the other classes. It controls all flows: MCNP file writing, volume calculation (when needed), nuclei trees building, evolution, ...

A global pointer (gMURE) on this class is defined to allow interaction between classes. For example, when the geometry has been defined, as well as the MCNP source, Tallies, ...., the MCNP file will be written using

gMURE->BuildMCNPFile("myfile");
this will generate an MCNP input file called "myfile" (if no argument is given to the previous method, the default input file name is "inp").

The name of MCNP exec command is given by

gMURE->SetMCNPExec("mcnp");
the default value for the MCNP executable is "mcnp4c". This name is important for evolution as well as for stochastic volume calculation.

You can specify the particle running mode by either gMURE->SetModeN() (the default) to run MCNP with neutron transport, gMURE->SetModeNP() to transport neutrons and photons and so on.

Many methods are in-line defined, therefore examination of MURE class header is strongly recommended (see Doxygen class description ).

MURE basic files

Different files are used or built in MURE. It is important to know what these files are to understand the behavior of MURE.

Files of "MURE/documentation"

This directory contains the most updated user guide and class documentations.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup the "MURE/documentation/pdf" directory contains the PDF files
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup the "MURE/documentation/html" directory contains the HTML files, in particular an HTML version of the user guide (which is a translation of the PDF one). HTML links are easier to use as well as copy/paste for examples. Moreover the "MURE/documentation/html/doxygen" directory contains the automatic Doxygen description of classes.


Files in "MURE/data"

In the root MURE tree, there is a very important directory called "data" (known in MURE as the DATADIR) ; this directory can be changed by using either the environment variable DATADIR, or using the MURE::SetDATADIR() method1.6. In this directory, you will find:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup chart.JEF3T: this file contains, for each nucleus, the half-life time and the decay modes. It is a "hand-made" file from nuclear data book and JEFF 3.0 library, from "Nuclides and Isotopes", [12] and "Table of Isotopes", [13].
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Mass.dat and NaturalIsotopeMass.dat contain respectively the atomic mass for all nuclei and some natural compositions.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup FPavailable.dat and FPyield.bin are fission product yield files: the first one is an ASCII file containing the Z,A of fissiles, and the address of the fission yield (for the available energies) in the binary FPyield.bin file. These files are built from ENDF/B6 file. Source programs that build these files are in MURE/utils/fp. These files are part of the MURE package and have been built for 32 and 64 bits computers ; if you want to use other FP yield, you need to rebuild these files using MURE/utils/fp/GenerateFPYield.cxx (the compilation line is at the end of the file).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup xsdirprequ.dat is the "header" of a general xsdir (from the top to the "directory" keyword). It is used in the automatic XSDIR construction.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup BaseSummary.dat is the file that contains all available nuclei, their temperature and the corresponding xsdir line.
It is build from MURE/utils/datadir/ExtractTree.cxx and/or MURE/utils/datadir/ExtractXsdir.cxx. The first one extracts information from a directory tree and the second from an existing xsdir. This file is the only way for MURE to use automatic MCNP nucleus code.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup AvailableReactionChart.dat contains, for all nuclei of the chart.JEF3T and BaseSummary.dat, whether or not reactions are available for MCNP. The aim of this file is to speed up the NucleiTree construction. It is built from MURE/utils/datadir/CheckReaction.cxx.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup IsomerProduction.dat contains necessary information to allow the (n,$ \gamma$) isomer productions for some important nuclei such as 241Am, 109Ag, ...
NOTE: When you add new nucleus or temperature in nuclear cross-sections files, these modifications will be taken into account ONLY if BaseSummary.dat and AvailableReactionChart.dat have been updated. You also need to remove the local ReactionList directory (see after § 1.4.6).


Files of "MURE/utils"

This directory contains codes that can be very helpful to users.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup "endf2ace" directory contains a small interface to NJOY (see documentation in the directory)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup "fp" contains a utility to rebuild FPyield.bin and FPavailable.dat of MURE/data directory. Main file is GenerateFPYield.cxx which extracts from an ASCII ENDF file (containing the FP yields) the fission product yield in a format used by MURE.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup "datadir" contains programs that allows users to build or complete the BaseSummary.dat and AvailableReactionChart.dat.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup ExtractXsdir.cxx allows users to build/complete a BaseSummary.dat from an existing MCNP xsdir.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup ExtractTree.cxx allows users to build/complete a BaseSummary.dat from a directory tree of cross-sections ; this tree can be built by the "endf2ace" utility. The form of the directory tree is

base_name/base_version/Z/AAA/Isomeric_state/temperature/bin/

where, for example, base_name=ENDFB, base_version=6.8, Z=92, AAA=235, Isomeric_state=0 (for ground state), temperature=600 (in K). In the directory "bin" one find the binary cross-section of the desired nucleus in the file "ace" and an xsdir line for this nucleus in a file named "dir" (for example the line looks like '92235.10c 233.025000 ace 0 2 1 621851 4096 512 5.1704E-08 ptable')

In both cases, the compilation line is at the end of the source code.

NOTE: If an existing BaseSummary.dat is already present in MURE/utils/datadir, this file is completed ; otherwise it is created.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup CheckReaction.cxx must be used after building/modifying the BaseSummary.dat file in order to build the AvailableReactionChart.dat.

NOTE: After running ExtractXsdir/ExtractTree and CheckReaction, you have to copy the BaseSummary.dat and AvailableReactionChart.dat in your MURE/data.


Graphical User Interface "MURE/gui"

The GUI of MURE is located in the MURE/gui directory. The executable name is "MureGui" and it reads the result of a MURE or Dragon evolution. To use it, user must install ROOT (free download at http://root.cern.ch). Before compiling MureGui, user has to edit the Makefile to set/unset the LAPACK variable depending on whether he want to compute radiotoxicity or not. To allow radiotoxicity calculation, the Lapack package must be installed (see http://www.netlib.org/lapack/index.html)1.7. Then the compilation is obtained by a "make" in the MURE/gui directory. Using MureGui without argument gives a short description of the code used (see also § 7.3).

MURE Source files "MURE/source/include" and "MURE/source/src"

The MURE source files are located in "MURE/source/include" for the header files (.hxx) and in "MURE/source/src" for implementation (.cxx). When user is modifying the MURE source, he has to recompile the MURE package (by a "make" in MURE/source/src). In MURE/source/external, one finds 2 auxiliary libraries, ValErr and Mctal that are used in MURE. The ValErr defines a class to handle numbers and their errors, and Mctal is dedicated to reading/writing MCNP "m" files.

In any program using MURE, you have to include at least:

#include "MureHeaders.hxx"
and if needed,

#include <libmctal/TMTally.hxx> 
#include <libmctal/TMComment.hxx> 
#include <libmctal/TMctal.hxx> 


Other files

Each time a new evolution is run, a directory ReactionList is locally built (if it is not already there) with the available reaction of user's nuclear data base (one binary file for each Z). A list of suppressed reactions for some of the nuclei (because they are lower than a given threshold) is also written in ReactionList/SuppressReaction.dat. The aim of theses files is to save time when using the same nuclear data base AND the same reaction threshold, life-time cutting and so on. Thus if you modify one of these, DO NOT FORGET to remove the ReactionList directory.

What's new in MURE

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup April 2013:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Version of base and isomeric states (metastable and ground state) for 242Am in BaseSummary.dat file for standard library (distributed with MCNP or available@NEA) are now more conform to the reality ; you have to regenerate your BaseSummary.dat/AvailableReaction.dat files with the exec of MURE/utils/datadir. DON'T FORGET TO REMOVE YOUR ReactionList DIRECTORY IN ORDER TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THESE MODIFICATION.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup BasePriority has been debug and it seems to work as expected...
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup March 2013:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Add a generalization of the MURE::SetMode() method to allow any type of particle transport (mainly for MCNPX)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Cell importance may have different value for each transported particles (by successive call to Cell::AddParticle method)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup extend the MCNPSource possibilities (particle distributions are now allowed for MCNPX)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup July 2012:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Generalization of isomer production by (n,$ \gamma$) for special cases (such as 241Am, 109Ag, ...), and bug correction in (242Cm, 242Pu) production, see 5.1.6.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Improve MurGui Spectrum radiotoxicity tab
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Allow to plot neutron balance in the "Reaction Rate" tab.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup June 2012:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Add functionalities in MureGui (see MureGui's Radiotoxicity tab)

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Nuclei extraction is now possible after a given cooling time.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup $ \gamma$, $ \beta$$ \alpha$ and neutron spectra for evolving materials can be computed.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup New MURE install procedure (more simple, more robust): any fresh install or update NEED to run first the install.sh script (require bash shell).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Add the possibility to used multi-threading (OpenMP) during the evolution and for updating multigroup $ \sigma$$ \phi$ when the gcc version support this option (see INSTALL procedure and install.sh script and section 6.2.2.2).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Add some new kind of MCNPSource (see section 4.2.2)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Add fluence to dose conversion for tallies
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup May 2011:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Add a new class GammaSpectrum class (section 7.4.2)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup New option of MureGui : use the "radiotoxicity tab" of MureGui on a dumped Material created with MURE (see 7.3.6 and "MURE/example/GammaSpectrumExample.cxx")
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup New methods MCNPSource::SetAXS and MCNPSource::SetVec allows user to define collimated sources.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In Tally::Tally(int type,const char *particle) : if type < 0 , it's change the Tally units.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup For example Tally *t=new Tally(-4,"P") define a tally in MeV/cm2 rather than Particles/cm2 .
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup A new method MURE::SetModeP() can be used to allow only the photon transport.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup July 2009:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Improve the english in User Guide: many thanks to Erica Agostinho for this painful work.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Implementation of PseudoMaterial: in order to take into account temperature effects, one can process the nuclear data at the desired temperature (using NJOY) or use an interpolation between 2 already existing temperatures ; this later method is used in the PseudoMaterial techniques.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Avril 2009: MURE is available at NEA DataBank
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup January 2009:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Improve reading time of BaseSummary.dat file : it is now greatly recommended that this file is ordered by Z,A,I (this is the case if it is generated by ExtractedXsdir.cxx and ExtractTree.cxx).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Rewrite long parts of the documentation (User Guide and HTML class description)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Modify examples directory: it now contains documented examples and output.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup November 2008: Improve radiotoxicity post treatment in MureGui.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup September 2008: Implement "multigroup" calculation for reaction rates: a very narrow energy binning for flux calculation is put in each MCNP run ; then reaction rates are obtained by reading ACE MCNP files after each MCNP run. The result of such method saves a considerable amount of CPU time for MCNP (at least a factor 30) with only a low percentage of discrepancy ($ \sim$1 to 3%) in result compared to the standard calculation (reaction rates are tallied in MCNP).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup April 2008:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup implementation of Predictor-Corrector method in the evolution
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup possibility to read ASCII nuclear data file (ACE format): this avoids problems due to binary compatibility (size of real (float or double?), little or big endian, ...). BUT it is much longer to (1) build the ReactionList directory and (2) run a MCNP.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup December 2007:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Disable the $ \sigma$$ \phi$ extrapolation by default. It has been shown, but not really understood, that this treatment introduces a larger dispersion in the result, after N identical evolutions, than doing nothing (no $ \sigma$$ \phi$ extrapolation).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Modify the evolution using a MCNP User Input geometry file:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup "like but" cells can be used (but not evolved)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup "MCNP Transformation" cards can be used
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup the 3rd block of the MCNP file is read and copied except the materials (that must be defined in the MURE file). Thus the source as well as all other cards of this block can be used without defining them in the MURE file (this is also true for user defined tallies).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup October 2007:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Switch from ccdoc to Doxygen for class documentation
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Change completely the MURE directory trees
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup NON BACKWARD COMPATIBILITY
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Material definition has changed: now only 2 constructors must be used:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Material(): for standard material (you have to specify density, ... with the Set methods)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Material(int): for using materials from an MCNP input file geometry.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup THE COPY CONSTRUCTOR HAS NOT TO BE CALL: CALL only the Material::Copy().
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The Material::Mix has been modified (number of arguments, units required). see Material.hxx
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The Material::AddNucleus has been modified (number of arguments). By default the proportion units are "kpMOL" (i.e. molar proportion). But the unit must be specified if you use a moderator (MT card of MCNP).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The proportion units (both for Density and Proportion) must be used for any Material::GetProportion() and Material::GetDensity() methods

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup for Proportion the only valid units are: kpMOL(molar prop), kpMASS (mass prop), kpATCM3 (at/cm3), kpATBCM(at/barn.cm)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup for density the only valid units are: kdGCM3 (g/cm3), kdATCM3 (at/cm3), kdATBCM (at/barn.cm)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup A new material has been defined : ControlMaterial (public of Material). This class is used for Poison, Fissile or other control of reactivity (e.g. poison.cxx in MURE/examples)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup All Print() methods now return a string instead of a void: to use them: cout<<Mat->Print()<<endl; for example.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup EvolutionControl class has been cleaned (as well as MURE class). If you want to use special control you have to write your own derivative class. Examples using PoisonControl, FissileControl & HNControl (but Adrien you have to rewrite them and look carefully at TMSR.cxx in MURE/examples.) and Rod control are defined in source/src. You can used them as they are or defined your own using these examples.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Almost all cout/cerr have been removed from classes; used instead LOG_DEBUG, LOG_INFO, ... ; LOG_INFO is now independent of LogLevelMessage ; it is always printed. If MURE::SetMessageLevel is set to LOG_LEVEL_DEBUG, all LOG_DEBUG are printed. But if MURE::SetSilentDebug is used, only the LOG_DEBUGs of methods where a "int DODEBUG=1" is inserted are printed. Thus, using LOG_DEBUG, avoids to comment all "cout" when no debugging is desired.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup ALL EXAMPLES HAVE BEEN UPDATED TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THESE MODIFICATIONS: please READ THEM!!!!!!!!!!
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup September 2007:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Correct an important bug in evolution using an MCNP User Input geometry file: number of Materials were not correct (Thanks to Jan Frybort).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Juin 2007:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Rename the MURE header file Shapes.hxx into MureHeaders.hxx : this is more logical...but you have to change your MURE files....
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Add a new class EvolutionWrapper to simplify and extend EvolutionControl capabilities
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Suppress the writing of BDATA_xxx and DATA_xxx ; now, by default, only BDATA_xxx are written. This can be changed using the MURE::SetWriteBinaryData() and MURE::SetWriteASCIIData() methods.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup One can start an evolution from a given step : suppose that the evolution stops at step i ; an evolution can be started from the step i+1 using MURE::Evolution(T,i+1). Warning: it is probably not correct for OutCoreEvolutiveSystemVector...you must do the evolution from the first step as before.

Geometry Definition

Introduction

This is a beta version, so there may be bugs. Therefore, each time a new geometry is built you should check it with MCNP before using it.

There are two base classes to build a geometry: Shape and Cell. Shape describes only geometrical shapes, and Cell corresponds to an MCNP cell (i.e., it has a material, importance, etc.).

Shape objects correspond to simple geometrical shapes (sphere, plane, ...) as well as more complex ones resulting from the intersection and/or union of simple shapes (Intersections/unions are defined by the Node class). A Node is a "tree" of intersections/unions of Shapes. For fast calculations, a node tree has to be as simple as possible. Special methods are available for simplifying the node trees which can (in general) determine whether or not a Shape is disjointed (or included) of (in) another Shape (see example in figures B.1 to B.4 in Appendix B).

These simplifications may result in the deletion of some Shapes. But, because one must not destroy a Shape in a Node if that Shape belongs to another Node, a special way to handle Shape creation/destruction has been implemented (via Reference_ptr).

In conclusion : the user must only use Shape_ptr (a "reference Shape") and not Shape. Shape_ptr is a pointer to Shape with Reference_ptr. In that way, the Shape_ptr will be destructed only if it is no longer referenced, otherwise, its "deletion" leads to a decrementation of the number of references.

Definition of geometrical shapes

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup There are 4 available base Shapes :

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Plane (infinite),
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Cylinder (infinite),
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Sphere,
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Brick (finite or infinite)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then one can define Node (unions or intersections of Shapes) with 2 already defined Nodes:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Tube
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Hexagon (finite or infinite)
A Brick is a rectangular parallelepiped. A Tube is a finite cylinder with an optional inner radius that defines a "tube". Hexagons can have finite or infinite height. In general, a user will only need to use Spheres, Bricks, Tubes and Hexagons.

One can define the interior or the exterior of each Shape. The complement of a Shape can be defined by the Not() method as well as by the "!" operator (see examples given later on).

Other shapes available in MCNP(X) may be added by any user. This is not too hard even if it requires some work. The best way to do it, is to read the implementation of existing shapes to have an idea.

Units

WARNING: In MURE, the length unit is the meter (whereas in MCNP it is the cm). In particular, volumes in MURE are in m3.

Length m
Energy eV
Temperature K
Density g/cm3, atom/cm3 or atom/(barn.cm)
Proportion %mol, %mass, atom/cm3 or atom/(barn.cm)

Examples of simple shapes

To define the interior of a origin center sphere of radius R:

Shape_ptr S(new Sphere(R));
To define the outer part of S one can do

Shape_ptr Ext_S(!S);
or

Shape_ptr Ext_S(S->Not());
or

Shape_ptr Ext_S(new Sphere(R,0,0,0,1);
where 3 zeros correspond to the sphere center (the origin) and +1 to the exterior of the Sphere (default=-1).

For Hexagons and Bricks, two versions exist: finite or infinite Shapes. For finite bricks and hexagons, you should define it as:

Shape_ptr B(new Brick(HalfX, HalfY, HalfZ, Signe));
Shape_ptr H(new Hexagon(HalfHeight, Side, Signe));
where HalfX (resp. Y and Z) is the Half length of the brick in the X (resp. Y and Z) direction, HalfHeight the half height (!) of the hexagon, Side its side, and Signe the sign defining whether it is the inner or the outer part, just as for the sphere. For infinite ones, to avoid conflicts between the definitions, a string at the beginning is necessary (and, of course, HalfHeight and HalfZ are irrelevant) :

Shape_ptr B(new Brick("any string you want", HalfX, HalfY, Signe));
Shape_ptr H(new Hexagon("any string you want", Side, Signe));
The infinite shapes obtained are parallel to the Z axis, but they may be rotated afterwards.

Examples of simple Nodes

A Node is the Union (+1) or the Intersection (-1) of Shapes (i.e., simple Shapes or Nodes).

To define the intersection of a sphere centered at ( x0, y0, z0) of radius R with a square brick of side a centered at the origin, one may use:

Shape_ptr S(new Sphere(R,x0,y0,z0);
Shape_ptr B(new Brick(a/2,a/2,a/2));
Shape_ptr Inter=S & B;
whereas the union of the sphere and the brick may be defined as

Shape_ptr Union=S | B;

Moving a Shape

It is possible to move (translation/rotation) a Shape (or a Node) via the Shape::Translate and Shape::Rotate methods. For example, to translate the Shape_ptr B of (dx,dy,dz),

B->Translate(dx,dy,dz);
and to rotate clockwise B around ( x0, y0, z0) of $ \phi$, $ \theta$ and $ \psi$ around the z, y and x axis respectively:

double center[3]={x0,y0,z0};
B->Rotate(phi,theta,psi,center);
Note that the translation/rotation of a Shape translates/rotates also the inside shapes (see next section).

The "put in" operator »

It is possible to put a Shape_ptr A inside another B one, via the "put in"3.1 operator A>>B ; this operator works differently depending on A:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup if A is a normal Shape_ptr: a A>>B modifies both A and B ; A becomes A $ \cap$ B and B becomes B $ \cap$ !A (see figure 3.1)
Figure 3.1: Operator >> (put in). (a) A and B before the action of the operator ; (b) A and B after the action of the operator.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=10cm]{fig/put_in}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup if A is a Shape_ptr with a universe number (e.g. after a call to Shape_ptr::SetUniverse() for a lattice): A>>B does not modify neither A nor B ; a MCNP Fill card is just added to B in order to fill B with universe of A.
Example:

Shape_ptr S(new Sphere(R));
Shape_ptr B(new Brick(a/2,a/2,a/2));
B>>S;
In this example, the Brick B is put inside S.

Note that now S and B are new Shape_ptr: S=S & !B (i.e. the sphere without the brick) and B=S & B (i.e, the intersection of the brick and the sphere) as already mentioned above (see fig. 3.1).

Note:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The brick B is an inside shape of S: this means that if one moves S, one moves also B.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup It is possible to link inclusion:

A>>B>>C;
means that A is put in B and the result is also put in C. A is an inside shape of B and C ; B is an inside shape of C.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup if after the previous example, one makes

C>>D;
Inside shapes of C are cleared and D has A, B and C as Inside Shapes.

Clone of a Shape

It may be sometimes very useful to clone a Shape, i.e., to create a new Shape with the same properties as the original one. Here is an example:

Shape_ptr B1(new Tube(1,0.5));
Shape_ptr T1(new Tube(1,0.4));
Shape_ptr T2(new Tube(1,0.3));
T2>>T1>>B1;
Shape_ptr B2=B1->Clone();
B2->Translate(1,0,0);
B2 has exactly the same aspect as B1 (with 2 tubes inside) but it is translated by 1m in the x direction, whereas B1 is centered at the origin.

Boundary conditions

In MCNP, it is possible to use special boundary conditions: mirror, white or periodic boundary conditions. In MURE, these boundary conditions could be used but have not been fully tested...so it is advised to use them carefully. In all cases, the exterior of the Shape_ptr with boundary conditions must have a zero importance. You can apply only one type of boundary conditions to a Shape_ptr. Here is a brief description of these boundary conditions:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Mirror conditions correspond to a standard reflexion on a shape ; the method to define such conditions is

Shape_ptr A(...);
A->SetMirrorBoundary();

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup White conditions correspond to a reflexion with a cosine direction distribution on the surface ; the method to define such conditions is

Shape_ptr A(...);
A->SetWhiteBoundary();

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Periodic condition: when a particle leaves a given plane it re-enters through another one. This method could only be applied to Bricks or Hexagons, with the restriction that the Top and Bottom planes (before any reflexions) are either Mirror boundaries, White boundaries or Infinite boundaries.The method to define such conditions is

Shape_ptr A(new Brick(1,1,1));
A->SetPeriodicBoundary(true,"mirror");

or

Shape_ptr A(new Brick(1,1,1));
A->SetPeriodicBoundary(true,"white");

Recommendations

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup It is generally simpler to define a geometry from the inner part to the outer part : for example,

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup define first shape A, then B and C and D.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Put shapes inside each other like

A>>B>>D;
C>>D;

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup After doing that, you can't move and/or rotate A, B or C. But if you move/rotate D, then it will move/rotate also the inner shapes (A, B and D). If A, B or C have to be rotated or translated to a given position in D, then you must do it BEFORE putting these shapes inside D.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Avoid complex shapes: it is more efficient (in term of CPU time in MCNP) to divide a complex in several simpler shapes.

Definition of MCNP cell

A Cell is defined by a Shape_ptr, and if needed a Material.

MCNP cells are defined via the Cell class ; one has to give

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup the Shape_ptr corresponding to the geometric shape of the Cell,
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup the Material (see section 4.1) if exists (default=0 for void),
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup the importance of particles3.2 (default=1),
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup a lattice, if needed.
For example to construct a cell composed of a full tube of radius R and height H, made of B4C

Shape_ptr C(new Tube(H/2,R));
Cell *c=new Cell(C,B4C);
where B4C is a (Material*)3.3. In this example, one can define the exterior cell as

Shape_ptr Exterior(!C);
Cell *exterior=new Cell(Exterior,0,0);
The first zero means that the material is void and the second one means that neutron importance is set to 0 in the exterior cell.

NOTE:

If not only neutrons are transported in MCNP, it is useful to define the desired mode (i.e., NP, NE, NPE for Neutron and Photon, Neutron and Electron and Neutron, Photon and Electron) before any Cell definition ; indeed, in this case, the given cell importance applies to all particle types. For example:

gMURE->SetModeNP();
Cell *c=new Cell(C,B4C);
Cell *exterior=new Cell(Exterior,0,0);
will set the transport mode to neutrons and photons and the cell c will have an IMP:N=1 and IMP:P=1 whereas the cell exterior will have an IMP:N=0 and IMP:P=0.

Cell and clone shapes

Suppose we have defined 2 tubes B1 and B2 as follows:

Shape_ptr B1(new Tube(1,0.5));
Shape_ptr T1(new Tube(1,0.4));
Shape_ptr T2(new Tube(1,0.3));
T2>>T1>>B1;
Shape_ptr B2=B1->Clone();
B2->Translate(1,0,0);
the cell definition for B1 is not a problem:

Cell *b1=new Cell(B1,Graphite);
Cell *t1=new Cell(T1,Iron);
Cell *t2=new Cell(T2);
where Graphite and Iron are two Material*. Here, the result will be a tube of graphite containing a tube of iron containing a void tube. To define analog cells for B2 we have to do:

Cell *b2=new Cell(B2,Graphite);
Cell *tt1=new Cell(B2->GetOriginalInsideShape(1),Iron);
Cell *tt2=new Cell(B2->GetOriginalInsideShape(0));
Indeed, the "Inside shapes" of B2 are ordered from the most inner (B2->GetOriginalInsideShape(0) clone of T2), to the most outer (B2->GetOriginalInsideShape(1) clone of T1).

Lattice

Lattices are used in MCNP to fill cells of repeated structure. There are 2 types of lattice, hexahedra (type=1) or hexagonal (type=2).

In this section, four examples of lattices are presented (from the most simple to the most complex case). Of course the lattice type does not change the declaration (except that the lattice generator is a Brick for hexahedra lattice whereas it is an Hexagon for the type 2).

The general philosophy for lattice declaration is the following:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Shape section

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup define the Shape_ptr A that will be filled by the lattice,
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup define the Shape_ptr G that is used as lattice generator (a Brick or an Hexagon) and give to that generator a universe number (via Shape::SetUniverse()),
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup put G in A with G>>A
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup define all Shape_ptr Bi that shall be used in the lattice and assign them a universe number (via Shape::SetUniverse()).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Cell section

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup build the Cell for Shape_ptr A
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup build the Cell of the generator Shape_ptr G
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup indicate to cell of Shape G that it is a Lattice (via Cell::Lattice())
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup fill the lattice with all the desired Shape_ptr Bi (via Cell::FillLattice())


A simple lattice example (SimpleLattice.cxx)

This example is a simple tube which is filled by an hexagonal lattice (type 2). Each hexagon of the lattice is made of graphite and filled with a small tube of Iron.

        //
        // define materials (see § 4.1)
        //
        Material *Iron=new Material();
        Iron->SetDensity(7.87);
        Iron->AddNucleus(26,56,1.);
 
        Material *Graphite=new Material();
        Graphite->SetDensity(1.86);
        Graphite->AddNucleus(6,0,1);
        //
        // define geometrical Data size
        //
        double VesselH=2;
        double VesselR=1;
 
        double HexaH=VesselH;
        double HexaSide=0.2;
        
        double PinH=VesselH;
        double PinR=0.05;
        //
        //Shapes
        //
        //the Vessel : a full Tube
        Shape_ptr Vessel(new Tube(VesselH/2,VesselR));
        //the Exterior
        Shape_ptr Exterior(!Vessel);
        //the lattice generator
        Shape_ptr LatticeGenerator(new Hexagon(HexaH/2,HexaSide));
        LatticeGenerator->SetUniverse();
        LatticeGenerator>>Vessel; // put Lattice Generator in the vessel
        // a small full tube that will fill the lattice
        Shape_ptr Pin(new Tube(PinH/2,PinR));
        Pin->SetUniverse();
 
        //
        //Cells
        //
        Cell *exterior=new Cell(Exterior,0,0);
        exterior->SetComment("The exterior of the cylinder");
        //vessel
        Cell *vessel=new Cell(Vessel);
        vessel->SetComment("The vessel");
        //the lattice
        //---------- Line A ----------
        Cell *Pavage=new Cell(LatticeGenerator);
        Pavage->Lattice(2); // define a hexagonal lattice
        Pavage->FillLattice(Pin); //fill the lattice with the iron Pin
        //---------- Line B ----------
        //the pin and its exterior that define a second universe
        Cell *pin=new Cell(Pin,Iron);
        Cell *exterior_pin=new Cell(!Pin,Graphite);
The result is shown in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2: A simple lattice.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=8cm]{fig/simpleLatt}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Shape part:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup a lattice generator shape is defined,
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup and the method Shape::SetUniverse() is used to give a universe number to that Shape.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then, this generator is put in the "Vessel".
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup We define a small tube and assign it a universe number.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Cell part:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup the Pavage cell is declared with the lattice shape generator, made of void.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The Lattice type is set to hexagonal via Cell::Lattice().
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The whole Pavage cell is filled with the small tube universe number.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then this universe is constructed (Cells pin and exterior_pin). Note that Pin Shape and !Pin have the same universe number.


A lattice with different zones (SimpleLattice2.cxx)

Let us modify the previous example slightly: we want to fill the Vessel with 2 types of hexagons: the first ones are full graphite hexagons (the reflector) in the outer part of the Vessel and the second ones are the previous hexagons with the small rod inside that fills a virtual inner cylinder of radius 80cm. The only change takes place between the lines named "Line A" and "Line B" . We have to replace this part by:

        //---------- Line A ----------
        Cell *Pavage=new Cell(LatticeGenerator,Graphite);
        int range=int(VesselR/(1.5 * HexaSide))+1;
        Pavage->Lattice(2,-range,range,-range,range); //define a explicit lattice
        for(int i=-range; i<=range; i++)
            for(int j=-range; j<=range; j++)
            {
                int pos[3]={i,j,0}; //the lattice index
                double xt =  HexaSide*sqrt(3.) * (i + j*0.5 ) ;
                double yt = 1.5 * HexaSide * j;
                double X[2]={xt,yt}; //the center of each hexagons
                if(IsHexagonInTube(X,LatticeGenerator,0.8)) //true if the hexa center at X is 
                    Pavage->FillLattice(Pin,pos);           //inside a tube of radius 80cm
                }
        //---------- Line B ----------

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The Pavage Cell is now made of graphite in order to fill the empty hexagons of the lattice (the so called "reflector") with this material.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then the hexagonal lattice is defined as (2range×2range) matrix (in x and y direction and infinite in z). The "range" has been defined to fill the whole vessel.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then, each position of hexagons in the lattice is computed ; if a hexagon is completely inside the virtual cylinder of radius 0.8m, a hexagon with the small iron tube is added (Cell::FillLattice) at the given position pos.
The result is shown in Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3: A lattice with different zones .
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=8cm]{fig/simpleLatt2}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}
Note that in this example, there is no way to obtain a tally only in "the reflector" part, because it is only a part of the Cell "Pavage". In order to obtain such information, the quicker way is:
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Shape part, define a Shape_ptr corresponding to the Whole space (intersection of nothing3.4):

Shape_ptr Whole(new Node(-1));//-1=intersection, here, of nothing
Whole->SetUniverse();

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Cell part, replace the line

if(IsHexagonInTube(X,LatticeGenerator,0.8))
    Pavage->FillLattice(Pin,pos);

by

if(IsHexagonInTube(X,LatticeGenerator,0.8))
    Pavage->FillLattice(Pin,pos);
else
    Pavage->FillLattice(Whole,pos);

and add the following Cell

Cell *whole=new Cell(Whole,Graphite);


A lattice with more than one simple shape (Stadium.cxx)

In this example, we consider a hexahedra lattice (type 1). Each brick of the lattice will have parts of "stadiums" on each (x,y) sides (see Figure 3.4, this is the base geometry of the MSRE reactor).

        //
        //materials
        //
        Material *Iron=new Material();
        Iron->SetDensity(7.87);
        Iron->AddNucleus(26,56,1.);
        
        Material *Graphite=new Material();
        Graphite->SetDensity(1.86);
        Graphite->AddNucleus(6,0,1);
        //
        // Data
        //
        double VesselH=0.8; // the core H and R
        double VesselR=0.4;
        
        double SquareH=VesselH; //stadium heigth
        double SquareS=0.2;     //stadium straight line length
        
        double BendR=0.02;      //stadium bend curve radius
        double BendH=VesselH;
        double BrickW=0.04;
        double BrickL=0.08;          
        //
        //Shapes
        //
        //the Vessel
        Shape_ptr Vessel(new Tube(VesselH/2,VesselR));
        //the Exterior
        Shape_ptr Exterior(!Vessel);
        //the lattice generator
        Shape_ptr LatticeGenerator(new Brick(SquareS/2,SquareS/2,SquareH/2));
        LatticeGenerator->SetUniverse();
        //put the lattice generator inside the core
        LatticeGenerator>>Vessel;
        
        //Definition of the stadiums (horizontal & vertical)      
        
        Shape_ptr Circle0(new Tube(BendH/2,BendR));
        Circle0->SetUniverse();
        //clone circles for horizontal and vertical stadiums
        Shape_ptr Circle1=Circle0->Clone();
        Shape_ptr Circle2=Circle0->Clone();
        Shape_ptr Circle3=Circle0->Clone();
        //translate circle
        Circle0->Translate(-0.1,+0.04,0);
        Circle1->Translate(-0.1,-0.04,0);
        Circle2->Translate(-0.04,0.1,0);
        Circle3->Translate(+0.04,0.1,0);
        //2 bricks for horizontal and vertical stadiums
        Shape_ptr Brick0(new Brick(BrickW/2,BrickL/2,SquareH/2));
        Brick0->SetUniverse(Circle0->GetUniverse()); //belong to the same universe than Circle0
        Brick0->Translate(-0.1,0,0);
        Shape_ptr Brick1(new Brick(BrickL/2,BrickW/2,SquareH/2));
        Brick1->SetUniverse(Circle0->GetUniverse()); //belong to the same universe than Circle0
        Brick1->Translate(0,0.1,0);
        //2 vertical stadiums
        Shape_ptr Stade0=Circle0 | Brick0 | Circle1; //union of circles and brick
        Shape_ptr Stade2=Stade0->Clone();
        Stade2->Translate(0.2,0,0);
        
        //2 horizontal stadiums
        Shape_ptr Stade1=Circle2 | Brick1 | Circle3;
        Shape_ptr Stade3=Stade1->Clone();
        Stade3->Translate(0,-0.2,0);
        //interior of all stadiums
        Shape_ptr AllStades=Stade0 | Stade1 | Stade2 | Stade3; //to define all stadium exterior
         
        //
        // Cells
        //
        Cell *exterior=new Cell(Exterior,0,0);
        exterior->SetComment("The exterior of the reactor");
        //vessel
        Cell *vessel=new Cell(Vessel,Graphite);
        vessel->SetComment("The reactor vessel");
        //Lattice
        Cell *Pavage=new Cell(LatticeGenerator,Graphite);
        Pavage->Lattice(1); //hexahedral lattice
        Pavage->FillLattice(Stade0);
        Pavage->FillLattice(Stade1);
        Pavage->FillLattice(Stade2);
        Pavage->FillLattice(Stade3);
                
        Cell *stade0=new Cell(Stade0,Iron);
        Cell *stade1=new Cell(Stade1,Iron);
        Cell *stade2=new Cell(Stade2,Iron);
        Cell *stade3=new Cell(Stade3,Iron);
        Cell *exterior_stade=new Cell(!AllStades,Graphite);

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Shape part:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup A Tube (Circle0) is created at the origin ; then it is cloned in 3 other Tubes (universe number of Circle0 is given to its clones). Then these Tubes are translated to the right place.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup 2 Bricks are created (with the same universe as Circle0) and translated to the left and the top of the square.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then 2 stadiums are constructed as the union of 2 tubes and a brick. The right and bottom stadiums are cloned from the 2 previous ones, and a union of all stadiums is constructed.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Cell part:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The lattice cell is defined, set to type 1, and each stadium is added to the lattice.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup then, stadiums cells and exterior of these stadium, defining a unique universe, are built.
Figure 3.4: A lattice with more than one shape.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=8cm]{fig/complexLatt}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}


Lattice of a Lattice (LatticeOfLattice.cxx)

The purpose of this example is to illustrate a hexagonal Lattice of big structural hexagons, themselves filled with a hexagonal lattice of fuel rods (like in a EFR/Superphenix core)

        double VesselH=1.1;
        double VesselR=1.1;
        double FuelHexaSide=0.05;
        double BicR=0.01;
        double StructHexaSide=8./sqrt(3)*FuelHexaSide;
        double StructThick=0.01;
        
        //the Vessel
        Shape_ptr Vessel(new Tube(VesselH,VesselR));
        //the Exterior
        Shape_ptr Exterior(!Vessel);
        //the outside structure hexagon
        Shape_ptr StructHexa(new Hexagon(VesselH,StructHexaSide+StructThick));
                StructHexa->SetUniverse();
        //the inside structure hexagon  
        Shape_ptr InnerStructHexa(new Hexagon(VesselH,StructHexaSide));
                InnerStructHexa->SetUniverse();
        Shape_ptr Reflector(new Node(-1));
                Reflector->SetUniverse();
        StructHexa>>Vessel;
        //
        //a fuel hexagon
        //
        Shape_ptr FuelHexa(new Hexagon(VesselH,FuelHexaSide));
        FuelHexa->Rotate(-Pi/6);
        FuelHexa->SetUniverse();
        FuelHexa>>InnerStructHexa;
        
        Shape_ptr Carandache(new Tube(VesselH,BicR));
                Carandache->SetUniverse();
        Shape_ptr SideStructNeighbourg(new Node(-1));
                SideStructNeighbourg->SetUniverse();
        
        //============================================================
        // Cells
        //============================================================
        Cell *exterior=new Cell(Exterior,0,0);
        exterior->SetComment("The exterior of the reactor");
        Cell *vessel=new Cell(Vessel);
        vessel->SetComment("The reactor vessel");
        Cell *structhexa=new Cell(StructHexa);
        structhexa->SetComment("The Outside struct Hexa");
        int range1=int(VesselR/(1.5 * StructHexaSide)+1);
        structhexa->Lattice(2,-range1,range1,-range1,range1);
        double StructHexaWidth=sqrt(3)*StructHexaSide;
        for(int i=-range1; i<=range1; i++)
            for(int j=-range1; j<=range1; j++)
            {
                int pos[3]={i,j,0};
                double xt =  StructHexaWidth * (i + j*0.5 ) ;
                double yt = 1.5 * StructHexaSide * j;        
                double X[2]={xt,yt}; 
                if(IsHexagonInTube(X,StructHexa,VesselR))
                      structhexa->FillLattice(InnerStructHexa,pos);
                else
                      structhexa->FillLattice(Reflector,pos);
            }       
        Cell *reflector=new Cell(Reflector);
        
        Cell *innerstructhexa=new Cell(InnerStructHexa);
        innerstructhexa->SetComment("The Inside struct Hexa");
        Cell *exterior_innerstructhexa=new Cell(!InnerStructHexa);
        
        Cell *core=new Cell(FuelHexa);  
        int range=int(StructHexaSide/(1.5 * FuelHexaSide)+1);
        core->Lattice(2,-range,range,-range,range);
        
        double FuelHexaWidth=sqrt(3)*FuelHexaSide;
        for(int i=-range; i<=range; i++)
            for(int j=-range; j<=range; j++)
            {
                int pos[3]={i,j,0};
                double xt =  1.5 * FuelHexaSide * i ;
                double yt = FuelHexaWidth * ( j + i*0.5 );
                double X[2]={xt,yt}; 
                if(IsHexagonInHexagon(X,FuelHexa,InnerStructHexa))
                     core->FillLattice(Carandache,pos);
                else
                     core->FillLattice(SideStructNeighbourg,pos);
            }       
        Cell *carandache=new Cell(Carandache);
        Cell *exterior_carandache=new Cell(!Carandache);
        Cell *sidestructneighbourg=new Cell(SideStructNeighbourg);

Figure 3.5: Lattice of a Lattice.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[scale=0.8]{fig/latoflat}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Materials, Sources, Tallies, ...


Definition of material

A Material is a set of nuclei with their proportions, it has a density and a temperature.

For example to define B4C of density 2.52 g/cm3at 296 K:

Material *B4C=new Material();
B4C->SetDensity(2.52); //default units are g/cm3
B4C->AddNucleus(5,10,0.199); //Boron is composed 19.9% of  510B
B4C->AddNucleus(5,11,0.801); // and 80.1% of  511B
B4C->AddNucleus(6,0,0.25);   // This is natural C (Z=6, A=0) ; for 1 mol of B one has 0.25 mol of C
At the end (i.e. when a Material is written in MCNP file, proportions are normalized to 1). The Material::AddNucleus() method has the general form

Material::AddNucleus(Z,A,I,prop);
or

Material::AddNucleus(Z,A,prop);
where Z is an integer corresponding to the proton number of the nucleus, A, an integer for the number of nucleons, I, an integer for the isomeric state and prop, a double for the proportion of the nucleus in the Material. For natural isotopes A=0 ; for ground state I=0 (this is the default value when not specified). See § 4.1.3 for units.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup A Material can contain one nucleus which is a "moderator": this means that the special treatment S($ \alpha$,$ \beta$) is applied for low energy in MCNP for this nucleus. In order to say that a nucleus is a moderator, one has to add a string for the last parameter of Material::AddNucleus (see 4.1.4 for a full description) ; defining thermal treatment for hydrogen in light water leads to:

H2O->AddNucleus(1,1,2.,kpMOL,"H2O"); //here the unit of proportion must be given explicitly

H2O->AddNucleus(8,16,1.);

Clone

A Material can be cloned via the Material::Clone(double Temperature) method. There are 2 types of clones depending on:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup whether the material does not evolve and the Temperature argument of Material::Clone() is negative (the default) (see example of B4C_Light in § 4.1.7): the clone is only used because it makes possible to define a material with the same number in MCNP but also present at different densities in different cells. A call to Material::SetTemperature() will have no effect on such a clone!
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup or whether the material will evolve and/or the Temperature argument is positive or null (see example of Comb2 and B4C_Hot in § 4.1.7): the clone is a "true" clone, i.e., all composition and proportions are duplicated (2 different material numbers in MCNP). Of course the density, temperature,... of the clone could be changed after cloning, as well as new nuclei could be added. This kind of clone is the correct way to handle 2 evolving cells starting with the same composition but evolving independently. Note that by default the density of the clone is the one of the original material.

Mix (Mix.cxx)

Two Materials of different densities can be mixed together to create a third material. This is useful in many situations, e.g., the case of reactor fuels with a given enrichment of fissile isotopes. The principle is the following:

M3=M1->Mix(M2,part,kpMOL);
M3 is a new material and is created from the molar part mixture of materials M1 and M2 (for example Uranium and Plutonium Oxides). If M1 and M2 are not needed directly in the problem, it is important to force them to be fictitious materials by using the Material::ForbidPrint() method: THIS IS DONE IN THE Material::Mix() METHOD. The density of the new material M3, if not specified by Material::SetDensity(), is calculated as the linear interpolation between the densities of M1 and M2. The temperature of the new material is the same as that of material M1.


Units

Density

Default units for density is g/cm3; but, to avoid confusion, you must set the density unit in Material::GetDensity() (either kdGCM3 (g/cm3), kdATCM3 (at/cm3) or kdATBCM (at/barn.cm)). User may give the density in atom/barn.cm by using Material::SetDensity(density,kdATBCM).

NOTE:

If the density is not given (i.e. set to the default value 0), it could be automatically found if the proportions are given in atoms/barn.cm or in atoms/cm3 .

Proportions

Default units for proportions are in molar percentage. To give proportion in other units, use

Material::AddNucleus(Z,A,I,prop,UNITS) 
where UNITS stands for kpMOL ("%mol" (default)) or kpMASS ("%mass" ) or kpATBCM ("at/barn.cm") or kpATCM3 ("at/cm3").

Material extension for MCNP

In MCNP, material codes have extensions (like ".60c"). These extensions are very important because they distinguish isotopes at different temperatures, bases, versions,... In practice, if no extension is specified in MCNP file, the first isotope encountered in the xsdir is chosen regardless the temperature imposed in the cell where the material is. In MURE user has different ways to specify an extension.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup This can be done manually for each nucleus of the material composition:

mat->GetNucleus(Z,A,I)->SetXSExtension(".49c")
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup This can be done manually for all nuclei of the material composition:

mat->SetDefaultXSExtension(".49c")

then each nucleus of the Material mat will have this ".49c" extension.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup If the MCNP code for a particular Nucleus (Z,A,I) of a given Material mat is known, it can be specified by using:

mat->GetNucleus(Z,A,I)->SetXSExtension(".49c")
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup This can be done automatically: the specific file, the so-called "BaseSummary.dat" file, which contains xsdir information written in a different way for search efficiency, is used. The extension is chosen according to the Material temperature. In fact the closest temperature to the one of the Material is chosen with the help of classes BasePriority and TemperatureMap. (see below)

NOTE:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup If evolution is need, the automatic procedure is certainly required...but I am not sure (PTO).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup If one specifies the extension value (either via Nucleus::SetXSExtension() or Material::SetDefaultXSExtension() or Nucleus::SetModeratorName()) then you must provide in the xsdir the corresponding data files.


S ($ \alpha$,$ \beta$) Treatment and MT card

When the special treatment S($ \alpha$,$ \beta$) is desired for low energy, MCNP MT card arguments has to be specified. Consider the water example:

H2O->AddNucleus(1,1,2.,kpMOL,"H2O"); 
H2O->AddNucleus(8,16,1.); 

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup this can be done manually: the string "H2O" must not be empty ; then

H2O->GetNucleus(1,1)->SetModeratorName("lwtr.01t");
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup this can be done automatically: the BaseSummary.dat file is read to find the code of S($ \alpha$,$ \beta$) treatment file ; this time, because S($ \alpha$,$ \beta$) treatment is material dependent, the string has to refer to a given "Category" to specify which kind of effects are taken into account ; in the above example, hydrogen has different S($ \alpha$,$ \beta$) treatment for light water, polyethylene, benzene, ... The complete list of available Categories is given in Nucleus in the Nucleus::SetModeratorCategory():

H2O for H in light water
H/Zr for H in ZrH
poly for H in polyethylene
D2O for D in heavy water
BeO for Be in Be oxide
Be for Be in Be metal
Gr for graphite
Zr/H for Zr in ZrH

The moderator category can also be any real MT file name such as "lwtr" or "u/o2", ...

Pseudo Materials

PseudoMaterials are particularly useful for thermal-hydraulics problems. Normally, the material temperature dictates which extension (e.g. ".60c") for cross-sections will be used from the evaluated data libraries. The default behvaiour in MURE is that the nearest available temperature is used, the maximum tolerable difference between this temperature and the desired material temperature being defined in the TemperatureMap class. However, there are occasions where it is useful to perform a stochastic interpolation at the desired temperature by adding two identical nuclei at different temperatures in the material in varying proportions. These types of materials are called PseudoMaterials, because, in principle, they behave as a material at a precise temperature, T, even though the cross-sections in the evaluated data libraries at this precise temperature do not exist. To declare a Material (Mat) to be a PseudoMaterial requires the following simple line:

Mat->SetPseudoMaterial(); 
From this point onward, MURE will automatically create two identical nuclei with different extensions/temperatures and in the correct proportions for, every nucleus which is added to this material. No other commands are necessary. However, in the case of an evolving material (a reactor fuel rod for example), this can cause the addition of many, many extra nuclei to the material, thus slowing down MCNP calculations by perhaps as much as 20%. In the case that the user only wants to declare certain nuclei to be PseudoNuclei (for example, the most important ones, such as the fissile and fertile nuclei) the following kind of lines can be added after the creation of a Material:

UO2Fuel->AddNucleus(92,235,0.04); 
UO2Fuel->AddNucleus(92,238,0.96); 
UO2Fuel->AddNucleus(8,16,2.0);

UO2Fuel->GetNucleus(92,235)->SetPseudoNucleus();
UO2Fuel->GetNucleus(92,238)->SetPseudoNucleus();

Now, only the selected nuclei will be treated as pseudo nuclei and automatically inserted twice into the MCNP file at the two nearest data base temperatures in the correct proportions. The proportions, $ \omega_{{1}}^{}$ and $ \omega_{{2}}^{}$ , for the interpolation are calculated in the following way:

$\displaystyle \omega_{{2}}^{}$ = $\displaystyle {\frac{{\sqrt{T}-\sqrt{T_{2}}}}{{\sqrt{T_{2}}-\sqrt{T_{1}}}}}$

$\displaystyle \omega_{{1}}^{}$ = 1 - $\displaystyle \omega_{{2}}^{}$

where T1 and T2 are the nearest two temperatures in the evaluated data base files straddling the desired temperature T.


MCNP material Printing

This section concerns only evolving Materials. When evolution is required, at the beginning, many nuclei are present in the material but in a very small proportion. Each time a neutron enters in a cell, MCNP tries to find the nucleus on which the potential reaction could happen. Thus, the bigger is a material, the longer is the MCNP run. The idea is to suppress only for the MCNP print, the nuclei which do not contribute to neutron transport to save time. The criterion is based on the evaluation of total cross-section $ \sigma_{{T}}^{}$ and nucleus proportion p. If a nucleus of a material has a p×$ \sigma_{{T}}^{}$ < $ \varepsilon$, it is not printed. The value of $ \varepsilon$ is by default set to 0.1%×1mb = 10-6. This can be changed via MURE::SetMCNPNucleusThreshold(). To be noticed that perturbative tallies of all evolving nuclei are written (in order to evaluate the cross-section...). The effect of this procedure is thus to accelerate MCNP runs at the beginning of the evolution where time steps between MCNP are smaller, and add more and more nuclei as far as the evolution is going on (with bigger time steps between MCNP runs).


Examples

Please take a look at Material_test.cxx and Material_test2.cxx. Here are some examples:

//the Lead and its extension
Material *Lead=new Material();
Lead->SetDensity(11.34);
Lead->AddNucleus(82,0,0,1.);
Lead->GetNucleus(82,0,0)->SetXSExtension(".50c");

//An other material completely define by hand
Material *B4C=new Material();
B4C->SetDensity(2.52);
B4C->SetDefaultXSExtension(".60c"); //here all extension are set to .60c
B4C->AddNucleus(5,10,0.199);
B4C->AddNucleus(5,11,0.801);
B4C->AddNucleus(6,0,0.25);

//A clone of "static" material: no new MCNP material
Material *B4C_Light=B4C->Clone();
B4C->SetDensity(1.5);

//an evolving material ; automatic extension finding is performed 
Material *Comb=new Material();
Comb->SetDensity(10);
Comb->SetEvolution();
Comb->AddNucleus(8,16,2.);
Comb->AddNucleus(92,238,0.95);
Comb->AddNucleus(92,235,0.05);

//a clone of evolving material - here a new MCNP material is created
Material *Comb2=Comb->Clone();

//A clone of "static" material but at a different temperature
Material *B4C_Hot=B4C->Clone(600);

The use of Nucleus::SetXSExtension or Material::SetDefaultXSExtension supposed that the user provide a correct xsdir file with all necessary information.

Automatic extension finding

Here is a short description of the automatic nucleus extension finding.

Making the BaseSummary.dat file

In order to work, a specific file, BaseSummary.dat, must be present in the data directory. The aim of this file is to facilitate the search for a given Z,A,I and related xsdir information (see also § 1.4.2 and 1.4.3).

Extracting the MCNP nucleus code from the BaseSummary.dat file

Suppose the desierd ZAI exists in the BaseSummary.dat file. Then the choice of the desired nucleus is based on 2 criteria: the first one is related to the preference in a nuclear base (ENDB, JEFF, JENDL) and the version of this base, and the second criterion is related to the nucleus temperature. A score is calculated for each criterion, and the best score is chosen. Two classes are in charge of these criteria: BasePriority and TemperatureMap.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup BasePriority class: a priority base is organized in 3 levels (base names) and maximum 3 sub-levels (base versions). Level 1 has a greater priority than level 2 and so on. By default, the 3 levels are: (1) ENDFB (USA), (2) JEFF (European) and (3) JENDL (Japan). Only 1 sub-level is defined for each base (6.1 for ENDFB, 3.0 for JEFF and 3.3 for JENDL). If a user defines for each level the same base (e.g., (1) ENDFB, (2) ENDB, (3) ENDB), then this imposes the base choice (i.e., no other choice is possible).

For example

BasePriority *BP=new BasePriority();
BP->SetBasePriority(0,"JEFF");     //1st prefered base
BP->SetVersionPriority(0,"3.1",0); //1st prefered version for 1st prefered base 
BP->SetVersionPriority(1,"2.2",0); //2nd prefered version for 1st prefered base 
BP->SetBasePriority(1,"ENDFB");    //2nd prefered base
BP->SetBasePriority(2,"JENDL");    //2nd prefered base
gMURE->SetBasePriority (BP);

will choose nuclei first in JEFF 3.1, the if not found, in JEFF 2.2, then in JEFF (what ever is the version), then in ENDFB (default first prefered version VI.8) and then in JENDL (default first prefered version 3.3).

If one want to impose nuclei in ENDFB VII.0, then user should do

BasePriority *BP=new BasePriority();
for(int i=0; i<3; i++)
{

BP->SetBasePriority(i,"ENDFB");
for(int j=0; j<3;j++)

BP->SetVersionPriority(j,"7.0",i);
}
gMURE->SetBasePriority (BP);

In that case, only nuclei givent in the wanted nuclear base are used.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup TemperatureMap class: this class defines a temperature "binning" T[i] and a precision $ \Delta$T ; an input temperature Tin can be searched in this binning with respect to the precision. For example, if T[0] = 300 K, T[1] = 500 K and $ \Delta$T = 50 K, then all Tin in [250 K, 350 K] will have a score of $ {\frac{{\vert T_{in}-T[0]\vert}}{{\Delta T}}}$, all Tin in [350 K, 450 K] will have a 0 score. The precision $ \Delta$T can be set via gMURE->GetTemperatureMap()->SetDeltaTPrecision(). A zero score in temperature stops the MURE execution: you may either increase the $ \Delta$T precision or build the nucleus data file (ACE format) at the desired temperature.

Automatic XSDIR construction

Using the extension finding, MURE can build the XSDIR file that is used by MCNP to get the cross-sections used in the problem. To use this option, you just have to set :

gMURE->SetAutoXSDIR();
When getting the code for MCNP file, MURE will then save the best line it finds in BaseSummary.dat. Therefore, right before building the MCNP file (the XSDIR is built at the first step of an evolution), MURE will build the XSDIR file by using all these best lines it saved.

IMPORTANT : If an existing XSDIR is already present in the MCNP run directory, then MURE will NOT build a new one ; the existing one will be used by MCNP. Thus either the xsdir is correct, either you have to remove it.

Particle Source

The MCNPSource class enables the definition of particle sources (up to now only neutron sources may be defined). The source may be defined with MCNP card or as an external source. In the latter case (MCNPSource::SetExtern()), external source will be read in a special file. This is valid in subcritical mode as well as in critical (KCODE) mode.

One chooses to run in subcritical mode (default) or in KCODE mode via the MCNPSource::SetKcode() method.

Once an MCNPSource has been defined, one has to give this source to MURE class:

MCNPSource *mysource=new MCNPSource(1000); //1000 source particles 
gMURE->SetSource(mysource);

Kcode mode

To be noticed that, for Kcode, the number of source particles defined in the constructor of MCNPSource is in fact the number of neutrons per cycle.

To initiate a KCODE, a SDEF (or KSCR) card is needed (if no external source is given!). By default, the position of this initial source is (0,0,0). If you want to change the source position, use the MCNPSource::SetPosition().

MCNPSource *mysource=new MCNPSource(1000); //1000 source particles/cycle
//Kcode with first expected keff=1, 10 inactive cycles and 80 active ones
mysource->SetKcode(80,10,1); 
gMURE->SetSource(mysource);
If one want to use a source from a previous KCODE:

gMURE->UsePreviousRunSource("olds");
where the source file olds is the result of a previous run. In case of evolution, if you do not specify any argument, the source will be calculated as specified by inactive cycles, and then for next MCNP runs, the source is taken from the previous cycle.


More elaborated sources

The MCNPSource gives more details on MCNPSource class possibilities. Two simple examples are presented:

First

MCNPSource *source=new MCNPSource(1000); //1000 particles per cycle
source->SetKcode(500,20,1); //critical mode (500 active cycles, 2O inactive, supposed keff=1)
source->SetKSRC(); //use fission spectrum for netron energy
source->AddPosition(0,0,0); //add one position for the source at (0,0,0)
source->AddPosition(0.1,0.1,0.1); //add an other one at (10cm,10cm,10cm)
source->AddPosition(0,0,0.2); //add an other one at (0,0,20cm)
source->AddPosition(0,0,-0.2); //add an other one at (0,0,-20cm)
and the second

MCNPSource *source=new MCNPSource(); //SDEF source with 10000 particles
source->SetEnergie("D1");  //energy is define by the source probability 1 
source->SetDistribution("RAD=D2 EXT=D3"); // radial and axial extension are 
                                          // defined by source information 1 and 2
source->AddBias("SP1 -5 2.0");  //p(E)=E*exp(E/2.MeV)
source->AddBias("SI2 1. 2.");   // radial extension from r=1cm to r=2cm
source->AddBias("SI3 -10. 10.");// axial extension from z=-10cm to z=10cm

Source define via Spectrum class

One can define energy distribution source using the Spectrum class and the MCNPSource::UseThisEnergyDistribution() method. Any call to that method will dump in MCNPSource_YourEnergyDistribution.dat, the ASCII spectrum of this source (for user own use) as well as the total number of particles emitted (for normalization purpose).

To be noticed: this method will change the source particle type according to the Spectrum type (neutrons for NeutronSpectrum, $ \gamma$ for GammaSpectrum, ...).

This method only change energy distribution of the source (using MCNP distribution source cards (D, SI, ...) numbered by default from 800).

Tube Source

It is possible to define volumetric cylindrical sources with the help of the Tube class. Two methods are available : MCNPSource::AddTubeSource(Tube * tube, string energy) and MCNPSource::AddTubeSource(Tube * tube, Spectrum* spectrum). In both cases, the tube is used to define the shape of the source. The first one allows to use either mono-energetic sources or using source distributions "D" card. In the latter case, the user need to provide himself the distribution description via the MCNPSource::AddBias() method (see TubeSource.cxx example). The method using Spectrum class argument use Spectrum to define both particle type of the source (neutrons for NeutronSpectrum, $ \gamma$ for GammaSpectrum, ...) and energy spectrum (see TubeSource2.cxx example).

Theses 2 methods use internally source distribution cards (D, SP, SI, ...). The starting number of these distribution is 900. Thus don't use number above 900 to define your own source distribution and biasing.

Of course you can add more than one Tube source ; but it is only possible to add more Tube sources with same calling method(either MCNPSource::AddTubeSource(Tube * tube, string energy) or MCNPSource::AddTubeSource(Tube * tube, Spectrum* spectrum). One cannot mix them.

Define MCNP Source from the result of an evolution

If one want to use the energy distribution of a spent fuel which has cooled for a time t, use MureGui and dump the source in a MURE format ("Save Data" button, then select the "MURE INPUT Spectrum" radio widget). The generated file can be inserted in a MURE "cxx" code (c.f. MureGui section 7.3.6).

Tally class

The Tally class enables tallies for MCNP to be defined.

MCNP tallies are used to store quantities from a run ; there are 2 main tally types: Surface tallies (type 1 and 2) and Cell tallies (4,...). At present, only Cell tally of type 1 (current through a surface), 2 (flux through a surface), 4 (flux in cell), 6 (energy deposition in a cell) and 7 (fission energy deposition in a cell) are implemented in MURE. Surface tallies have not been tested at all and stochastic surface calculation is not implemented in MURE.

A Tally consists of

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup a tally type (what is the desired quantity, e.g. flux in a cell),
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup a list of TallyBin: this may be SimpleBin (a cell or surface number), GroupBin (a group of cells or surfaces) or a LatticeBin which allows to obtain tallies in cells with universes.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup a Time and/or Energy binning (linear, log or arbitrary binning)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup a list of TallyFM (Tally Multiplicator) that allows to obtain cross-sections, .... A TallyFM is composed of a multiplicative constant, a material number and a Reaction.
Of course Cell tally bin types could not be mixed with surface tally bin type. Tally bins are added with the Tally::Add() method (for cell/surface bins) whereas energy and/or time bins are added with Tally::AddEnergy() or Tally::AddTime().

Tally multiplicator may be added with Tally::AddMultiplicator() to obtain cross sections, reaction rates and so on.

Example of Tallies:

Tally *t1=new Tally(); //default tally type is 4: flux in cell
t1->Add(cell_1);  
t1->Add(cell_2);
LatticeBin *lpb=new LatticeBin(rod); //rod is a cell associated to an element of a Lattice
lpb1->AddContainer(core); //core is a cell fills by "rods"
t1->Add(lpb);
t1->AddEnergy(1e-2,1.e7); //log energy binning from 0.01 eV to 10 MeV with 10 bin/decade (default)
t1->AddMultiplicator(mat_1,new Reaction(102)); //capture reaction rate
t1->AddMultiplicator(mat_1,-6);//fission reaction rate
 

When in LatticeBins, you can precise the positions of the cell in the lattice, use a string which gives the position in the MCNP way, that is :

string pos="[0 0 0]";
LatticeBin *lpb=new LatticeBin(rod); //rod is a cell associated to an element of a Lattice
lpb->AddContainer(core,pos); //core is a cell fills by "rod" (e.g. a lattice)
This means that you are interested by the flux in the cell rod which is in the cell core at the lattice position [0,0,0]. The result in MCNP file will be (given that the number of cell rod is 1 and cell core is 2):

F4:N (1<2 [0 0 0])
Finally, you can use the universe shorthand (u=1 for instance), simply by giving the universe number, either directly if you know it or by using Shape::GetUniverse() :

Tally *t1=new Tally();  
t1->Add(MainShape->GetUniverse());
Please note that, in MCNP, the universe shorthand doesn't work for lattice elements filled with the universe number, that is to say, when a lattice is filled by position, for instance when in MURE we use Cell::FillLattice(Universe_Number, Position), the universe is not detected by MCNP. (see example Tally_Test.cxx)

As this shorthand is replaced by all the cells filled with the universe, we strongly recommend that you use it only if you are perfectly sure of the number of cells involved in the tally defined in that way.

Each tally must have a definite volume (or surface). The volume is set via the Tally::SetBinVolume() or for a given bin, via the TallyBin::SetBinVolume() or TallyBin::SetVolume(). This may be done manually or automatically: if no bin volume has been provided, the volume is automatically calculated by a stochastic method (see also the note C.1 concerning the volume calculation). For lattices and universe shorthands, as multiple volumes are needed for each bin, the SetBinVolume() method precises a partial number.

Tally *t1=new Tally(4);
t1->Add(Cell1);
t1->SetBinVolume(0,1.e-6,0); // Set the volume of Cell 1 to 1 cm3

LatticeBin *lpb2=new LatticeBin(rod1);
lpb2->AddContainer(rod2);
lpb2->AddContainer(core);

Tally *t2=new Tally(4);
t2->Add(lpb2);               // A Lattice Bin giving somthing like (1 2 < 3)
t2->SetBinVolume(0,1.e-6,0); // Set the volume of Cell 1 in cell 3
t2->SetBinVolume(0,1.e-6,1); // Set the volume of Cell 2 in cell 3

The partial number follows the order of the output. (to know exactly the order for lattice bin volumes, see MCNP doc or example Tally_test.cxx).

Fluence to dose conversion

The Tally::AddFluenceToDoseConversion() method converts fluence (only for F4 type tally) to dose rate (rem/h) using fluence to dose conversion factors. It can be use only for photons or neutrons. The conversion factor are store in /path_to_mure/MURE/data/GammaFluenceToDose.dat and NeutronFluenceToDose.dat (they are taken from [18]). Interpolation is done for energies and for factors. This interpolation is done by default in log way. The 2 boolean parameters of Tally::AddFluenceToDoseConversion() allows to specify linear interpolation for energy (the 1st one) and conversion factors (the 2nd one).

Tally *MyTally=new Tally(4,ParticleType);//fluence to dose works only for ParticleType="P" or "N" 
MyTally->Add(....);
MyTally->AddEnergy(.....);
MyTally->AddFluenceToDoseConversion();


Nuclei Tree

Nuclei Trees: general considerations

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup To evolve a given material, it is essential to know in advance the ensemble of nuclei which it can produce via successive nuclear reactions and decays. This information comes from the Nuclei Tree object, which is defined by the NucleiTree class, and contains the linking information between all the nuclei that exist in the chart of nuclides. Nuclei can be transformed into other nuclei by nuclear decays ($ \beta$, $ \alpha$, electron capture, etc.) and nuclear reactions ( (n,$ \gamma$), (n, 2n), fission, etc.). In general a particular nucleus has daughters (those nuclei it can transform into) and parents (those nuclei that can produce it). To calculate how much of a particular nucleus is produced during the evolution it is essential to know the ways in which it can be produced and the ways it can be destroyed.
We cannot only define the total global nuclear tree (the connections between all 3834 nuclei), but also the local or particular tree for a given nucleus. The particular tree for a certain nucleus is, in general, a subset of nuclei and their linking from the global tree. To extract an individual tree from the global tree, the NucleiTree::ExtractZAI method is used. The local tree is explored recursively by starting at the given nucleus (see figure 5.1) and then finding each successive reaction and decay daughters.

Figure 5.1: The chart of nuclides used in MURE containing 3834 Nuclei. Nuclei colored in red are those present in the Nuclear Tree of 232Th. To build this tree, simple rules are used for determining which reactions are possible: if Z < 50, (n,$ \gamma$) reactions are allowed, if Z < 90, (n,$ \gamma$) and (n, 2n) reactions are allowed, and if Z$ \ge$90, (n,$ \gamma$) and (n, 2n) and fission reactions are allowed.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=14cm]{fig/Th232_nocut_initjon}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

How the tree information is stored

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The global nuclear tree has a vector of all the physically possible ZAI objects, representing the different isotopes, including long-lived isomers of the same isotope, as an attribute. Each ZAI object contains vectors of pointers to other ZAI which are either its reaction daughters or its decay daughters. When a particular tree is extracted, the parental relations are also determined (see figure 5.2). It is then possible to follow the tree by jumping from ZAI to ZAI, and to understand for each ZAI object all the ways it can be created and destroyed.
Figure 5.2: The general case of a ZAI object X in a tree with multiple reaction/decay parents and daughters.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[bb=0bp 0bp 411bp 507bp,clip,width=6cm]{fig/nuclei_tree}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Cutting or simplifying the tree

Isotopes in the chart of nuclides have half-lives ranging over ~40 orders of magnitude. In a reactor core neutron fluxes are much lower ( $ \sim$ 1015 neutron/cm2/s) than in supernova explosions (up to $ \sim$ 1024 neutrons/cm2/s) and thus decay rates are usually much higher than reactions rates for most short-lived nuclei. Furthermore, the reactor fuel composition only changes significantly after some years, so short-lived isotopes play no important role in the evolution. We can therefore assume that nuclei with short half-lives decay instantaneously which allows us to simplify the tree and reduce the number of nuclei in the calculation and hence the calculation time. To simplify a nuclear tree requires these short-lived nuclei to be cut out of the tree and their reaction/decay parents and daughters re-linked into the tree correctly. There are two types of simplification for a particular tree branch, depending on whether the nucleus X in question is produced via decay (see figure 5.3) or nuclear reaction (see figure 5.4) .

Figure 5.3: Tree simplification if nucleus X is produced via radioactive decay
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=12cm]{fig/nuclei_treeS1}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Note that this means that in some cases a single type of reaction can produce multiple daughters with different probabilities (branching ratios), since the reaction daughter had more than one decay daughter itself, and was cut out of the tree because its half-life was too short (see figure 5.4). After the simplification process, these reaction daughters will have weights which are proportional to the decay branching ratios of the nucleus that was removed from the tree.

Figure 5.4: Tree simplification if nucleus X is produced via a reaction. The decay daughters of X become reaction daughters of A.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=16cm]{fig/nuclei_treeS2}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

For a particular tree many nuclei towards the neutron drip-line end up getting cut out due to their progressively shorter half-lives. In figure 5.5 we can see the nuclei explored and then removed from the tree right up to the edge of the nuclear chart.

Figure 5.5: The simplified nuclear tree for 232Th. Nuclei in yellow are those which were cut out during the tree exploration process because their half-lives were too short (less than 1 hour). Nuclei in red remain in the tree. Reactions follow the same rules that those defined in fig. 5.1.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=10cm]{fig/Th232_1h_initjon}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

The difference/similarity of material trees

Two nuclei X, and Y will have identical trees if there is a pathway of decays and reactions that produces Y from X and also a pathway of decays and/or reactions that produces X from Y. Reactions (n,$ \gamma$) and (n, 2n) move up/down in mass, and decays only move down in mass. Once the mass is sufficiently low that (n, 2n) reactions are not permitted, then decays will only take nuclei as far as the valley of stability and a stable nucleus are reached. At this point the tree branch ends. However, successive neutron captures are always possible, therefore fuels containing lighter elements, such as the Oxygen in Uranium Oxide (UOX) fuel, will have a different tree from a pure fuel's one such as the 232Th (see figure 5.6).

Figure 5.6: The UOX tree for T1/2$ \ge$1 hour. Reactions follow the same rules that those defined in fig. 5.1.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=10cm]{fig/Uox_1h_initjon}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

How many nuclei need to be considered in the evolution?

In all the previous chart figures, the reactions taken into account are: if Z < 50, (n,$ \gamma$), if Z < 90, (n,$ \gamma$) and (n, 2n), and if Z$ \ge$90, (n,$ \gamma$) and (n, 2n) and fission reactions. In reality, of course, nuclear cross sections are only available for a subset of all nuclei. Figures 5.7 and 5.8 show the nuclei with available reaction data found in the default MCNP4 cross-section (from ENDFB base). All the available reactions are plotted in figure 5.9.

Figure 5.7: 232Th tree with MCNP default cross-sections and T1/2$ \ge$1 hour.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=10cm]{fig/Th232_1h_autoreaction}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Figure 5.8: The UOX tree with MCNP default cross-sections for T1/2$ \ge$1 hour.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=10cm]{fig/Uox_1h_autoreaction}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Figure 5.9: MCNP default available reaction data are shown in light blue.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=15cm]{fig/MCNPreac}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

For a realistic half-life cut, the actinide nuclear tree still contains several hundred nuclei. However, simplification has reduced considerably the complexity of the problem(see figure 5.10)5.1.

Figure 5.10: Number of nuclei in the 232Th tree as a function of the minimum half life allowed, T1/2min. The blue curve shows the number of nuclei in the tree if the simple rules for allowed reactions are used (see figure. 5.1). The black curve shows the number of nuclei in the tree if allowed reactions are taken from the MCNP default reaction data base. The green curve corresponds to the MURE data base built at IPNO/LPSC (not part of the MURE package). The red dot shows the number of nuclei in the tree for the default cut (1 hour).
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=12cm]{fig/NucleivsT1_2}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Fission Products

Fission products are built according to the fission yields available in nuclear data libraries (ENDF B 6.8). They are the major contributor to nuclei increased in the reaction tree. Thus, the more FP in nuclear libraries, the longer the MCNP execution time will be due to the increase in tally number. Thus, in order to obtain a first approximation, it may be convenient to run only a selection of fission products that may be considered as "fundamental". We provide a method, NucleiTree::FissionProductSelection() to choose the most important FP. All other FP will not evolve (no resolution of Bateman equations) but instead are added in the real materials of the MCNP file in order to have a good flux description. A default selection has been entered with the nuclei of Table 5.1 ; nevertheless the user can provide a file with its own selection. To use this selection you must use gMURE->KeepOnlyFissionProductSelection() ; to give your own selection, use gMURE->KeepOnlyFissionProductSelection("MyFPSelection.dat") where the file MyFPSelection.dat is an ASCII file with each FP you prefer to keep for evolution : for example

Z1 A1
Z2 A2
...

Table 5.1: Default 58 fission product selection in NucleiTree::FissionProductSelection().
36-Kr- 83 46-Pd-107 54-Xe-134 60-Nd-145 62-Sm-152 66-Dy-160
40-Zr- 93 46-Pd-108 54-Xe-135 61-Pm-147 63-Eu-151 66-Dy-161
42-Mo- 95 47-Ag-109 54-Xe-136 61-Pm-148 63-Eu-152 66-Dy-162
43-Tc- 99 48-Cd-113 55-Cs-133 61-Pm-149 63-Eu-153 66-Dy-163
44-Ru-101 49-In-115 55-Cs-134 62-Sm-147 63-Eu-154 66-Dy-164
44-Ru-103 51-Sb-125 55-Cs-137 62-Sm-148 63-Eu-155 67-Ho-165
44-Ru-106 52-Te-127 55-Cs-135 62-Sm-149 64-Gd-155 68-Er-166
45-Rh-103 53-I -127 56-Ba-138 62-Sm-150 64-Gd-156 68-Er-167
45-Rh-105 53-I -135 59-Pr-141 62-Sm-151 64-Gd-157  
46-Pd-105 54-Xe-131 60-Nd-143 64-Gd-154 64-Gd-158  



Isomer Production from (n,gamma) or (n,2n) reactions

TO BE NOTICED: Before July 2012, MURE only takes into account the case of 241Am. In the previous treatment, all ground state production was replaced by 242Cm ; this was of course wrong and lead to an over estimation of 242Cm production and an under estimation of 242Pu. This has been corrected since July 2012.

In some cases, (n,$ \gamma$) (or (n, 2n)) reactions can lead to either ground state and isomeric state of a nucleus. For example, let take the case of 241Am. Neutron capture on this nucleus leads to 242Am(T1/2 $ \sim$ 16h) and 242mAm(141y). Ground state decays in 242Pu(17.3%) by electronic capture and in 242Cm(82.7%) by $ \beta$ - decay. A file (IsomerProduction.dat) is provided to give the branching ratio (for thermal and fast spectrum) to produced is ground and isomeric states of some nuclei. The format of this file is

Z A ReactionCode BRth BRf halflife CutFlag
...
where Z, A, ReactionCode, BRth and BRf are respectively the Z (95 for 241Am), A (241 for 241Am), the reaction type (allowed type are n_gamma or n_2n) and the thermal (87.33% for 241Am) and fast (85% for 241Am) branching ratio of the (n,$ \gamma$) reaction that leads to ground state (of 242Am). The "halflife" parameter is the half life of the produced ground state ( T1/2 $ \sim$ 16h for 242Am) follows by its unit (here "h") ; this parameter in not used, it is just an indication that can help the user to decide if the last parameter (CutFlag) is a "X" or a "M". "M" means that MURE decide what to do according to MURE::GetShortestHalfLife() method. "X" forced the replacement of the ground state (e.g. 242Am) by its decay daughters. To be noticed, if "M" is chosen, wrong results can be obtained in 242Pu and 242Cm for example, if no cross section is available for the ground state (242Am).

Branching Ratio

Evaluated branching ratio data for isomer production can be obtained at NNDC-ENDF, by choosing "n,g" in the Reaction line and "MRNP" (Multiplicities for production of radioactive elements, MF=9) in the Quantity line. The branching ratio given in MURE/data/IsomerProduction.dat are effective branching ratio computed on a typical thermal and fast spectrum as explained in [21]:

BReff = $\displaystyle {\frac{{\int_{0}^{\infty}BR(E)\sigma_{react}(E)\phi(E)dE}}{{\int_{0}^{\infty}\sigma_{react}(E)\phi(E)dE}}}$

Nuclei Tree: the implementation

Important files

All provided data files are located in MURE/data. One can use either, gMURE->SetDATADIR(path) or the environment variable DATADIR (setenv DATADIR path in csh).

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup When building trees, nuclear mass data are are also incorporated: the two files used for the input are Mass.dat (a modified version of the "The 2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation" data from the National Nuclear Data Center (BNL)) and NaturalIsotopeMass.dat that is used for non evolving natural isotopes (i.e. with A=0) ; this file has been built from the NNCD nuclear wallet card. The names of these files can be defined by gMCNP->SetMassDataFileName() and gMURE->SetNaturalIsotopeMassFileName() respectively.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Decay data: The decay data for the $ \sim$ 4000 nuclei in the nuclear chart comes from the chart.JEF3T file which has been constructed by A. Billebaud and updated by D. Heuer using JEF3T library. The name of this file is set through the command gMURE->SetNucleiChartFileName().
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Reaction data: Allowed reactions are defined in ReactionList class. This class allows different kinds of possibilities for allowed reaction initialization. The reactions allowed by using the simple rules (see Fig. 5.1) are defined in ReactionList::InitJon() ; the automatic detection from available cross-sections is defined in ReactionList::InitPTO() (see next paragraph for more details). It uses cross-sections in ACE format. The AvailableReactionChart.dat helps to save times (this file informs if cross-section are available or not for each nucleus of chart.JEF3T file). This file could be made by using MURE/utils/fp/CheckReaction. Other initialization functions are free to be defined by the user. This is particularly useful for prohibiting all reactions except a few of particular interest to the given problem.

One can choose a given method to generate ReactionList with

gMURE->SetReactionListInitMethod(new TSpecificFunctor<ReactionList>(0, &ReactionList::InitMethod)); 

where InitMethod could be InitJon, InitPTO, ..., ReactionList::InitPTO() being the default.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Isomer production: a file IsomerProduction.dat is provided in MURE/data that contains information to produce isomer state and ground state from (n,$ \gamma$) reactions. This file contains Z,A, thermal and fast branching ratio for a mother nucleus (e.g. 241Am) as well as half-life of the produced ground state (e.g. 242Am) and a string flag (either "M" or "X") to know if user want to replace the ground state by its daughters (e.g. electronic capture 242Pu and $ \beta^{{-}}_{}$decay 242Cm daughters). "M" means that MURE decide what to do according to MURE::GetShortestHalfLife() method. "X" forced the replacement of the ground state (e.g. 242Am) by its decay daughters. If a file IsomerProduction.dat exists in the local run directory, this file is used instead of the MURE/data/IsomerProduction.dat one.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Fission: Two files are needed for the inclusion of spontaneous fission decays and neutron induced fission reactions: FPavailable.dat and FPyield.bin, which have been built by MURE/utils/fp/GenerateFPYield. The first file is in ASCII format and contains the fission energies for each available ZAI, and the position (records) of the fission product yields in the binary file FPyield.bin (see for example Fig. 5.11 and 5.12). Even if these files are provided with MURE, you can regenerate them by providing the appropriate ENDF fission yield file.

Figure 5.11: Fission yield for 235U.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=14cm]{fig/U5_nocut_fission}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}
Figure 5.12: Fission yield for 235U with T1/2 > 1 hour.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=14cm]{fig/U5_1h_fission}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}


Reaction Auto-detection

Reaction auto-detection is based on information found in the MCNP ACE binary5.2 5.3 format files. Nuclei, for which MCNP reaction cross-section database information is available, can be found. The auto-detection process relies on the ReactionList class.

How does it work?

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup First, try to find out if auto-detection has been performed for the given ZAI by reading the binary file "ReactionList/Z.bin" where Z in the proton number of the ZAI. This file contains an array of Boolean for each reaction.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup If ZAI is not found in "ReactionList/Z.bin", start auto-detection:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Try to find in BaseSummary.dat file the ZAI (or an isomeric state of the ZAI)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup If it is found, read the ACE file and, among all reactions found in this file, find those which are significant according to a given threshold (see next paragraph)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Allow significant reactions and disable all others in ReactionList and add the ZAI to the "ReactionList/Z.bin" file with its reactions.
PLEASE NOTE: if the BaseSummary.dat file is modified (add new nucleus, or new base) or if the threshold used to find significant reactions is changed, THEReactionList DIRECTORY MUST BE REMOVED. Otherwise, your modifications will not be taken into account.

What are significant reactions?

A quantity $ \Xi_{{i}}^{}$ is calculated as

$\displaystyle \Xi_{{i}}^{}$ = $\displaystyle {\frac{{\int\sigma_{i}d\log E}}{{\int d\log E}}}$

where i stands for reaction i. Then if and only if $ \Xi_{{i}}^{}$$ \ge$$ \sigma_{{min}}^{}$ where $ \sigma_{{min}}^{}$ is a minimum threshold, the reaction is take into account ; The default threshold has been set to 0.01 barn5.4. This can be modified by MURE::SetReactionThreshold() called before any MURE::SetReactionListInitMethod() or Material definition. In order to save time, the procedure to allow or disable a reaction for a given nucleus is performed only the first time an evolution for that nucleus is asked ; then the result for that nucleus (i.e., a ReactionList object) is stored in a file (one per Z) in a specific local directory named ReactionList.

NOTE

Any change of the MURE::SetReactionListInitMethod()or MURE::SetReactionThreshold()after a first run will be taken into account only if the nucleus has not been already processed: thus you must destroy the ReactionList directory in order to have these changes taken into account.

The recursion depth cut

It is possible to put a limit on the recursion depth of the reactions when calling the NucleiTree::ExtractZAI method. For example prohibiting 30 or more successive neutron captures limits the nuclei included in the tree to the top of the actinide region (e.g Fermium, Californium, etc.) where experimental cross-section information does not exist, and many successive neutron captures are the only way in which these nuclei can be produced. The recursion depth parameter should be used with care. Figure 5.13 shows the effect of the recursion depth. The default value is 10000...

Figure 5.13: Effect from limiting the recursion depth for successive reactions in the 232Th tree, where nuclei with T1/2 < 1 hour have been removed.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=12cm]{fig/NucleivsRecursion}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Evolution in MURE

Preliminary Remark

Before doing any evolution you must provide a system (geometry based on Cells, all Materials, running MCNP mode (critical or subcritical), ...). This system definition is normally provided by the MURE geometry input file (a C++ code). But if you have a very large MCNP file already defined, it is possible to perform an evolution using this file without redefining the whole MCNP geometry in MURE style. The way of doing this is explained in section 6.5.

General Considerations

Simulating time evolution involves solving the well-known Bateman equations for every given nucleus in every given cell for which evolution is desired, and carrying out this integration over a discrete number of time steps. Simulating the fuel burn-up may also involve adjusting the neutron flux value at every step of the integration process so as to model constant reactor power, adjusting poison concentration to keep a given value for keff, ...

The general scheme for the evolution is shown in figure 6.1:

Figure 6.1: Evolution principle.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=15cm]{fig/evolution_scheme}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The nuclei tree is built once and for all at the first MCNP run ; it is controled via the Material::SetEvolution() method which must be called for each evolving Material before any cell definitions are made. Initial compositions of all materials are entered by the user and these will evolve automatically.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup All the necessary tallies for calculating mean neutron fluxes and cross-sections in evolving cells are automatically built.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The MCNP input file with the composition at a given time ti is built and a MCNP run is performed.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Bateman equations are solved for (Runge-Kutta method) using fluxes and cross-sections of the MCNP run over a given $ \Delta$ti
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup A new MCNP file with the composition at ti+1 = ti + $ \Delta$ti is built, and so on.
At the present time:
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup User must provide all ti in a vector of double where the ith element is the value of instant ti at which the Monte-Carlo transport is to be performed.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup EvolutionControl is used to define evolution conditions (constant power, keff adjustments, ...). Using inheritance, you may develop your own EvolutionControl class (see for example the PoisonEvolutionControl class and § 6.4).
The results of an evolution consist of a number of files stored in an "evolution" directory ; the name of this directory should be defined by the user via the MURE::SetMCNPRunDirectory function. Two general sorts of files can be found in this directory : On the one hand, there are the MCNP input and output files ("o", "m", "s" and so on) and on the other, the MURE-generated summary files (DATA_i, BDATA_i, ...) that can be read by a ROOT (see ROOT home page) C++ interface: MureGui.

Time discretization

There are 3 levels of time discretization:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The first level is the MCNP step, i.e., the number of $ \Delta$ti or MCNP runs. These steps are user-defined and may be unregular.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The second level is the discretization within a $ \Delta$ti. Each $ \Delta$ti is divided in NRK equally spaced Runge-Kutta $ \delta$t steps (which we'll also refer to as RK steps). At each tk = k$ \delta$t, Bateman equations are built with given cross-sections. Special methods controlling the evolution could be called at these times (e.g. the flux is renormalized to keep the constant power, ...).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then the last discretization step is performed automatically by the adaptive step size RK method. During this step (discretization of $ \delta$t in dtrk) cross-sections as well as fluxes are kept constant.

The Bateman's Equation

Here is the general form of the first-order differential equation that has to be solved for every nucleus in every evolving cell.

$\displaystyle {\frac{{\partial N_{i}}}{{\partial t}}}$ =  $\displaystyle \underbrace{{-\lambda_{i}N_{i}\;+\;\sum_{j}{\lambda_{j}^{j\rightarrow i}N_{j}}}}_{{\mbox{Decay}}}^{} $     +    $\displaystyle \underbrace{{\sum_{j}{N_{j}\sigma_{j}^{j\rightarrow i}\langle\phi...
...\sum_{\forall r}{\sigma_{i}^{(r)}\langle\phi\rangle}}}_{{\mbox{Reaction}}}^{} $

The writing and solving of these equations are systematically carried out by using internal methods of the EvolutiveSystem class. Only the general approach will be specified here. This approach involves the definition of what is called the evolution matrix E for every evolving cell. The user does not need to know in detail how it works and it is only being described here for the record.

The evolution matrix

Internally, every evolving cell knows which nuclei it contains (initially) or will eventually contain due to the evolution of its initial composition, thanks to the prior construction of the nuclei tree (c.f. NucleiTree in chapter 5). The approach taken in MURE is to assign unique indexes to every nucleus in the cell's composition so as to build its evolution matrix E. It is a square matrix of n dimensions, n being the total number of nuclei in the composition of the cell.

After completion of the matrix, the ith nucleus of a given cell will evolve according to its own Bateman's equation which will then be simply written as the sum over all nuclei:

$\displaystyle {\frac{{\partial N_{i}}}{{\partial t}}}$ = $\displaystyle \sum_{{j}}^{}$Eij × Nj

where Eij is the corresponding element of matrix E and represents the contribution of the jth nucleus in the cell's composition to the rate of change in time of the ith nucleus.

The actual writing of the matrix follows the natural structure of Bateman's equations and is done in two separate parts : first by taking into account all parent/daughter decay relations between nuclei considering proper decay branching ratios. After this, the parent/reaction daughters term is added, where, in the case of fission, fission yields are properly considered.

The evolution matrix is rebuilt in this way at every Runge-Kutta step (c.f : Time Discretization) for all evolving cells. The solving for the material's composition new proportion vector $ \overrightarrow{N}$ = {N0N1 ,..., Nn} is done automatically using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta-type integration method.


Multi-Threading parallelization

Since gcc version 4.1, OpenMp multi-threading is available with gcc compilation. Depending on the distribution, libgomp library (omp.h and libgomp) need to be installed. The multi-threading behavior is controlled by the OMP_NUM_THREADS environment variable. Setting it to 1 is equivalent to the single processor mode. Setting it to the maximum number of cores available, will run on all that cores (which is the default when this variable is not set). This variable only controls the behavior of the evolution NOT the MCNP run itself (which is still controlled by the MURE::SetOMP() method).

Cooling period

Whereas in general the evolution is useful when the reactor runs at its given power, it is also possible to introduce some cooling period, where the power (and thus the flux) is set to 0. This is done by using an array of booleans of same size than the time vector at which MCNP runs are normally performed. Each time this array contains a "true", the flux is imposed to 0 for the considered step, else the evolution is a standard one. The array is passed to MURE via gMURE->SetCooling() method.


Different way of evolutions

We suppose that the evolution is done at a constant power. Evolution can be performed in different ways that can influence the result.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Evolutions with a "constant" reaction rate: this is the default. Between 2 MCNP steps, reaction rates are keep "constant" ; a new reaction rate evaluation is performed at the next MCNP run for the next step. In fact, they are not really constant: due to renormalization of the flux to keep constant power, reaction rates used in Bateman equations are in fact, $ \alpha$$ \sigma$$ \phi$ where $ \alpha$ is the flux renormalization coefficient. Thus, periodically within a MCNP step, these reaction rates are readjusted (this explains the use of the term "constant" in quotes). An exampel of such evolution can be found in MURE/examples/Evolution/EvolvingSphere.cxx.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Cross-section evolution: this is no longer the default. Previous MCNP runs are used to linearly extrapolate the reaction rates for the next step.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Predictor-corrector methods. There are 3 Predictor-corrector (PC) methods implemented. This is actually new and not fully tested (despite the fact that it currently works). Suppose that the MCNP run at time TN has been done (leading to reaction rates ($ \sigma$$ \phi$)N). The evolution has to be performed up to TN+1.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup PC at middle point: the predictor run is performed with "constant" reaction rates ($ \sigma$$ \phi$)N up to TC = $ {\frac{{T_{N}+T_{N+1}}}{{2}}}$ ; then a corrector MCNP run is performed and leads to ($ \sigma$$ \phi$)C. Starting with the composition of TN, the evolution is done again from TN to TN+1 with the "constant" reaction rates ($ \sigma$$ \phi$)C evaluated at the middle point.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup PC at end-point: the predictor run is performed with "constant" reaction rates ($ \sigma$$ \phi$)N up to TC = TN+1 leading a composition CN+1P; then a corrector MCNP run is performed and leads to ($ \sigma$$ \phi$)N+1. Starting with the composition of TN, the evolution is done again from TN to TN+1 with the "constant" reaction rates ($ \sigma$$ \phi$)N+1 leading to a composition CN+1C. Then, the composition used for the next predictor run (for TN+1 to TN+2) is CN+1 = $ {\frac{{C_{N+1}^{P}+C_{N+1}^{C}}}{{2}}}$.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Kind of PC at end-point: the predictor run is done like in b) but for the corrector run, we used a linear interpolation of reaction rates from ($ \sigma$$ \phi$)N to ($ \sigma$$ \phi$)N+1. The next composition for TN+1 to TN+2 is CN+1 = CN+1C.

First tests seem to give an advantage to method b) for the quality of its results (compositions, dispersions of composition for M identical run with different random seeds, ...).

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Multi-Group evolution[14]. If this method is used, not that reaction rate tallies are not built in the MCNP input file ; instead, a thin energy binning flux will be built for each evolving cell. Then, after the MCNP run, reaction rates are calculated as $ \int$$ \phi$(E)$ \sigma_{{i}}^{{r}}$(E)dE where the sum is done over each energy group, $ \sigma_{{i}}^{{r}}$ is the pointwise cross-section of reaction r for nucleus i read in the ACE file used for MCNP run (if ASCII version is used, please note that this will take longer...). The main advantage of this method is a considerable CPU time saving (more than 30 times faster6.1 than the "standard" evolution). The accuracy of the result are quite good (~1% for thermal systems and 5% for fast ones6.2). To use this method, one has to define "gMURE->UseMultiGroupTallies();" at the beginning of the input file (see MURE/examples/Evolution/EvolvingSphere2.cxx example). The default energy binning for flux is (17900 groups)
Energy range 10-4eV - 1eV 1eV - 10eV 10eV - 10keV 10keV - 0.1MeV 0.1MeV - 20MeV
Number of bins/decade 100 500 5000 1000 500


Cross-section Evolution

Cross-sections are evolving with time because of the flux shape evolution. Between 2 MCNP steps, cross-sections are either constant, either evolving. Taking the cross-section evolution during the "evolving step" should enable a better precision and increase evolution step duration, reducing the CPU time. It is based on linear extrapolation of previous MCNP runs.

!!!! After a study of error propagation, it appears that fitting $ \sigma$$ \phi$ leads to a bigger dispersion of cross-section evolution in the result (with a constant power). Thus this treatment is no more used by default. To use it you must specify it by a MURE::FitSigmaPhi(true).

How does it work?

The treatment is applied for each cross-section of each nucleus in each cell. Thus, for the sake of simplicity, we will only consider a reaction cross-section $ \sigma_{{i}}^{}$ of a nucleus in a cell.

Since for evolution, reaction rates are used, we should rather consider the reaction rate $ \sigma_{{i}}^{}$$ \phi$ and not the cross-section $ \sigma_{{i}}^{}$. Suppose that we have performed an evolution up to step k (i.e., kth MCNP run is just finished). To know the reaction rate evolution up to step k + 1 (i.e., just before a new MCNP run), a linear fit (least square method from Numerical Recipes) is applied to MURE::GetFitRangeNumber() previous MCNP reaction rates6.3 (that is to say, MCNP runs k - 3, k - 2, k - 1, and k). Then, for the evolution over step k $ \rightarrow$ k + 1, the reaction rate is extrapolated with ($ \sigma_{{i}}^{}$$ \phi$)(t) = at + b, where a and b are the results of the linear regression. Note that for the first MURE::GetFitRangeNumber() MCNP runs, reaction rates are kept constant.

As already mentioned, integration of Bateman equations is in fact done in Nrk Runge-Kutta steps which are automatically divided in other shorter time steps (adaptive step RK method) ; the reaction rate evolution is only performed at each RK step level and it is kept constant within the current RK step. This constant value is evaluated in the middle of the RK step to be more accurate (see fig. 6.2).

Figure 6.2: Illustration of a reaction rate evolution. MCNP results are in black dots. The reaction rate used during the evolution from step k to step k + 1 is in green whereas the red squares indicate the time where the extrapolation is performed.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=10cm]{fig/ReactionRate}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

In order to better consider the rapid variation of a reaction rate slope, we have slightly improved the method as follows (here Nfit =MURE:: GetFitRangeNumber()) :

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup a linear regression is performed on Nfit to obtain a' and b' for the reaction rate evolution
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup a linear regression is performed on Nfit - 1 to obtain a" and b"
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup then if the 2 slopes a' and a" are of opposite sign, the slope taken for the evolution is the mean a = $ {\frac{{a'+a''}}{{2}}}$ and b = $ {\frac{{b'+b''}}{{2}}}$
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup or else, a = a' and b = b' if | a'| < | a"| or a = a"and b = b" if | a"| < | a'|


Reactivity Control

NOTE: only few tests have been performed and therfore many bugs may be present in the Evolution Control.

As already mentioned, the control of the whole evolution is done via the EvolutionControl class. This class already includes some useful methods, but the best thing to do in order to implement your own control is to write a derived class. In a first example, the reactivity control uses the original EvolutionControl class ; then the way of implementing your own control will be given.

A simple example using standard EvolutionControl

The example file poison.cxx (MURE/example/poison.cxx) corresponds to a very simple reactor (cylinder of borated water with a hexahedral fuel pin lattice). The reactivity control is done by adjusting the concentration of a poison (the boron) in the water. We assume that a large reserve of boron is available and thus, when necessary, we can adjust the boron concentration at a desired value. The method principle is to calculate an estimation of keff using the reaction rate extrapolations:

keff = $\displaystyle {\frac{{\nu N_{f}\sigma_{f}\phi}}{{N_{a}\sigma_{abs  w/o  poison}\phi+N_{p}\sigma_{poison}\phi-{N\sigma}_{n,2n}\phi-2N\sigma_{n,3n}\phi+escape}}}$

(n,xn), "escape" and $ \sigma_{{poison}}^{}$ are supposed to be constant between 2 MCNP steps ; the poison concentration Np is thus determined using the desired keff in the formula.

Poison material declaration

    ControlMaterial *BoratedWtr=new Material (0.7187023, 673);
    BoratedWtr->SetDensity(0.719); 
    BoratedWtr->AddTheControlNucleus(5, 10,0.00012);
    BoratedWtr->AddTheControlNucleus(5,11,0.00048);
    BoratedWtr->AddNucleus(8,16,0.333);
    BoratedWtr->AddNucleus(1,1,0.667, "H2O");
A ControlMaterial is a Material which is used to control the evolution, and in this case, a poison to control the reactivity. The 3th an 4th lines informs us that boron 10 (and 11) are the nuclei used to control the reactivity. See the "poison.cxx" example.

This material must not be an evolving material, because we'll consider that we can adjust boron concentration every time .

Escape calculation

In the keff formula, neutron leakage is needed ; in order to calculate these escapes, one has to define a F2 tally (flux through surface) through the most outer Shape of the geometry ; in the example this leads to:

gMURE->SetOutermostShape(Vessel);
because "Vessel" is the outer cylinder of this "reactor".

Evolution definition

You have to declare the Evolution Control object:

PoisonEvolutionControl *ECon=new PoisonEvolutionControl();
ECon->AddReactions(BoratedWtr);
gMURE->SetEvolutionControl(ECon);
The 2nd line gives the specific EvolutionControl command to add the required reactions useful for the control (poison absorption, ...)

Using your own EvolutionControl

The aim of this section is to help user implement its own EvolutionControl using inheritance mechanism. Then you will be able to write your own specific methods that will be called for the evolution control. Supposed we wish to create a MyEvolutionControl class: the hxx and cxx files are in MURE/example/.

NOTE: Don't forget to redefine the EvolutionControl* Clone() as:

EvolutionControl* Clone(){return new MyEvolutionControl(*this);}
Each method and variable of EvolutionControl are known in MyEvolutionControl ; but because of the virtuality of some methods, the ControlAtEachMCNPStep(), ControlAtEachRKStep() and ControlAfterEndOfRKIntegration() methods of MyEvolutionControl will be called instead of the ones of EvolutionControl.

Now to use this new class in Myprog.cxx:

#include <iostream> 
#include <cmath> 
using namespace std;
#include "MureHeaders.hxx" 
#include "MyEvolutionControl.hxx" 
...
int main(int argc, char** argv) 
{
    ...
    MyEvolutionControl *NewEC=new MyEvolutionControl();
    gMURE->SetEvolutionControl(NewEC); 
}
and to compile the Makefile for the compilation will be

g++ -g -O  -Wall -fPIC -I../include -I../../ExternalPkg -c MyEvolutionControl.cxx
g++ -g -O -o Myprog Myprog.cxx MyEvolutionControl.o -I../include -I../../ExternalPkg/ \
    -L../../lib -lMUREpkg -lvalerr -lmctal


Evolution of a MCNP user defined geometry

This section is devoted to users who have already defined a complex MCNP file and would rather not use the MURE geometry capability when making evolution. Even if this task requires some work, the procedure is simple. User has to redefine in MURE style, ALL materials of its geometry and all EVOLVING cells (but not the shapes associated to the cells). Of course, user will need all files required by a standard evolution (BaseSummary.dat, AvailableReactionChart.dat, ...)

The principle is the following: a line by line of a MCNP user input file are copied, but

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup if the cell number found corresponds to one of the "virtual" evolving cells defined, then the density of the evolving material at the given evolution step is taken into account. Be sure that 2 evolving cells must have 2 different materials (because they usually evolve differently even if at the beginning they are the same) ; thus, it is at present not possible to make the evolution of a cell defined by "like but" because there is no material on this cell line.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The general MCNP block will be read, but all the material description ("M" and "MT" cards) will be skipped and replaced by the MURE material definition. Note that if one wishes to use source MURE definitions, particle MODE definitions or PRDMP MURE definitions, any "SDEF", "KSRC", and "KCODE" (for source) or "MODE" or "PRDMP" must be removed from the original file. If you have defined tallies, they will be copied (line by line) and the necessary tallies for evolution will be constructed starting from your highest tally number : for example, if you defined 2 tallies F34 and F44, the automatic tallies for evolution will start at F54 ; tally numbers 4,14 and 24, are not used.
For material declaration, you must use the special Material constructor that takes as a single argument the material number ; this number is the one you have written in the MCNP input file. Don't forget to declare ALL materials of the geometry (evolving or non evolving). For non evolving materials, you must ask MURE to include them in the MCNP output file by using Material::AddToGlobalNucleiVector() after the last input nucleus.

For cell declaration, you must use the special Cell constructor ; it takes the cell number (the one you have written in the MCNP input file), an evolving Material pointer and the cell volume (in m3). ONLY evolving cells should be declared.

The Original MCNP input name is defined by MURE::SetUserGeometryInputFile() method. You can also defined all desired cards of the general data block (source, physical card, ...). The rest of the evolution is completely analog to what is explained in the above sections. Don't forget to provide a mean to calculate the tally normalization factor (you may either give a predefined power or use the MURE::SetTallyNormalizationFactor()).

An example is shown in UserGeo.cxx with the UserMCNPGeo MCNP input file.

More complex evolution conditions

Sometimes, the evolution is performed with power variations, some parameters such as boron concentration, temperature, ... are changing. This can be achieve through the EvolutionWrapper class (see EvolutionWrapper class) . Such conditions are illustrated on the following example:

EvolutionWrapper *EC=new EvolutionWrapper(); // create EvolutionWrapper
EC->AddPhase(100,3,1); // create a new 100 days phase with three MCNP steps, (1=logarithmic discretization)
EC->SetPowerLinear(0,4e4); // raise power from 0 to 40 kW
EC->SetMaterialBoronLinear(Cell_of_BoratedWater->GetMaterial(),1000e-6,500e-6); //boron depletion from 1000 to 500 ppm
EC->AddPhase(100,1,0); // a new single-step 100 days cooling phase
EC->SetPowerCooling();
EC->AddPhase(100,3,0); // a new 100 days phase with three equal(0=linear discretization) MCNP steps
EC->SetPowerConstant(4e4); // power is kept constant at 40kW in that phase
EC->Evolve(); // run the evolution (DO NOT CALL the MURE:Evolution method ; it is done here)

Looking at results from the evolution

The MURE data files

At present, results from the evolution are stored in the MCNP Run directory. There are 4 types of MURE files generated in addition to the MCNP files for each evolution step:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup DATA_xxx files are written for each step number xxx, and contain not only the Material composition information, but also average cross-sections for every possible reactions for all evolving cells in the geometry. In addition, average flux for each cell, cell spatial variables (if defined), keff, and time are also written out. They are written just before RK steps ONLY IF MURE:SetWriteASCIIData() has been called.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup BDATA_xxx files contain the same information as the above files but in binary format. Initially it was expected that these files would be much shorter in length than the ASCII files, but it appears that not much space is saved if binary files are used to store MURE results. Nevertheless it is much faster to use these files for post-treatment. They are written just before RK steps by default. On can disable this writing by using MURE::SetWriteBinaryData(false).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup KDATA contains all the keff information (with statistical errors) for all evolution steps in one file. These data are also contained in [B]DATA_xxx.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup FDATA contains all the data pertaining to the fission rates of various nuclei. For all the 50 or so nuclei which can fission, the rate (in fissions per second) integrated over all the evolving cells, is written out.
When using reprocessing feature DATA_bxxx or/and BDATA_bxxx files are also written just at the end of RK steps. When using PoisonEvolutionControl, additional files are also written such as POISON_PROPS which contains the poison proportion as a function of time.

Reading the data files with Tcl/Tk graphical interface scripts

This graphical interface is now deprecated. Except for ExamTree.tcl

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup ExamTree.tcl
To run these scripts from anywhere it is a good idea to add the TclScripts directory to your path. You must also set the DATADIRenvironment variable.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The ExamTree.tcl script is useful for exploring the evolution nuclear tree, which can be written out for the global nuclei vector of the MURE class using gMURE->WriteAsciiTree("myfile.dat"); or the tree for a material object Material->DumpTree("myfile.dat"); To explore the tree, type
ExamTree.tcl myfile.dat
Everything else is intuitive and self-explanatory. Just click either on the nuclear chart, or the Nucleus X window.


Reading the data files with ROOT graphical interface

This is a C++ GUI base on ROOT. Thus, before using this GUI, you must install a recent ROOT version (5.0 or any later version). This is easy because binary files can be downloaded from the ROOT home page (http://root.cern.ch). We have chosen ROOT because:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup it provides a large number of widgets
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup it is a very simple way of modifying, saving graphs: zoom on axis, grid, log scale, changing font, color, text position and so on as well as various picture saving formats are available (eps, jpeg, png, gif, ...).
The GUI is in MURE/gui ; to build this GUI, a simple "make" in this directory will do the job. The install.sh script should have set the flags according to your ROOT installation7.1 and check if Lapack package is avilable. LAPACK is a Linear Algebra PACKage use to solve the set of coupled differential equations for decays by a matrix diagonalization procedure. If this package is not installed, you have to install it (see § 1.4.4) to run the radiotoxicity module (but all other MureGui capabilities can run without Lapack). A simple "make" will build the MureGui executable:

MureGui [-type c -dataname str] DirName1 [DirName2 ...]
where
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup DirName1 is the MURE evolution directory (containing the BDATA_* or DATA_* files) and optional DirName2, ... are other directories to compare evolutions. The line style of plotted graphs is different for each directory (solid=DirName1, dash=DirName2, dot=DirName3, dash_dot=DirName4, ...). NOTE: when comparing evolutions, you must be sure that the cell composition of the different evolutions are the same: the list of non empty proportion nucleus must be in the same order.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Optional -type follows by a character which is either "A" (or "a") or "B" (or "b") ; "A" is to read DATA_* files (i.e. ASCII files) and "B" is to read BDATA_* files. The latter is the default (it is faster to read and a bit smaller) ; the ASCII files may be read when binary formats are not recognized (big endian->little endian, ...)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Optional -dataname follows by a string which is the data evolution prefix file name ; default is BDATA_* for binary reading and DATA_* for ASCII reading7.2.
A module in the transport code DRAGON has been developed to copy the results in DATA ASCII file format.

The interface has a Main windows composed of 8 tabs (Inventories, Cross-sections, Fluxes, Reaction Rates, K_effective, Breeding Ratio, Radiotoxicity and Spatial Variables, see Fig. 7.1) and can have up to 8 plot windows (one for each tab).

Whereas MureGui is graphical interface, the "Terminal" window used to run this program is often used for some important warnings/information/output: don't forget to look at it!

The 8 tabs of the main window

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Inventory Tab, colors of nuclei (see Fig. 7.1) correspond to the total mass scale importance (red: large mass->black: small mass). Nuclei are sorted in 4 categories (Actinides, Fission Products, Gas, and Miscellaneous) but a nucleus could belong to more than one category (a gaseous fission product is in FP and in Gas). "FP" and "AM" check boxes allows respectively the plotting of total fission products and total minor actinides (Np and Am, Cm, ...) . The total mass of checked nuclei can also be automatically performed using the "Sum of Selected" check boxes7.3. Finally, nuclei inventories are given in "g" or "Mol". When several physical cells i are selected (see later with Spatial Variable combo box), the total inventory of one nucleus is simply given by the sum of inventories in each region. Thus we have:

Ntot = $\displaystyle \sum_{{i}}^{}$Ni

Figure 7.1: MureGui main window. Inventory Tab.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[clip,width=14cm]{fig/MureGui}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Cross-section Tab, colors only help users to see the isotopes (all reactions for a same isotope are on the same color). The "FP"' check box allows the plotting of the mean fission products total cross-section. Similarly with the Inventory tab, the total cross-section can be obtained with the "Sum of Selected" check box (but FP and AM check boxes are not taken into account in the sum). Microscopic and macroscopic cross-sections are available. When several physical cells i are selected (see later with Spatial Variable combo box), an equivalent cross-section $ \overline{{\sigma}}$ or $ \overline{{\Sigma}}$ is computed for all reactions to maintain their total reaction rate:

$\displaystyle \overline{{\Sigma}}$$\displaystyle \overline{{\phi}}$Vtot = $\displaystyle \overline{{n}}$$\displaystyle \overline{{\sigma}}$$\displaystyle \overline{{\phi}}$Vtot = Ntot$\displaystyle \overline{{\sigma}}$$\displaystyle \overline{{\phi}}$ = $\displaystyle \sum_{{i}}^{}$ni$\displaystyle \sigma_{{i}}^{}$$\displaystyle \phi_{{i}}^{}$Vi = $\displaystyle \sum_{{i}}^{}$Ni$\displaystyle \sigma_{{i}}^{}$$\displaystyle \phi_{{i}}^{}$

Thus, we have for the equivalent macroscopic cross-section:

$\displaystyle \overline{{\Sigma}}$ = $\displaystyle {\frac{{\sum_{i}N_{i}\sigma_{i}\phi_{i}}}{{\overline{\phi}V_{tot}}}}$ = $\displaystyle {\frac{{\sum_{i}n_{i}\sigma_{i}\phi_{i}V_{i}}}{{\overline{\phi}V_{tot}}}}$

and for the equivalent microscopic cross-section:

$\displaystyle \overline{{\sigma}}$ = $\displaystyle {\frac{{\sum_{i}N_{i}\sigma_{i}\phi_{i}}}{{N_{tot}\overline{\phi}}}}$ = $\displaystyle {\frac{{\sum_{i}n_{i}\sigma_{i}\phi_{i}V_{i}}}{{(\sum n_{i}V_{i})\overline{\phi}}}}$

where n represents the density of nuclei (n = N/V}.
Note:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup when the density of one nuclei is null, a very small and uniform density is used to compute the equivalent microscopic cross-section ( n = 10-10at.cm-3).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Sometimes, it may be useful to compute the mean microscopic cross-section over the spectrum:

$\displaystyle \langle$$\displaystyle \sigma$$\displaystyle \rangle$ = $\displaystyle {\frac{{\int\sigma(E)\phi(E)dE}}{{\int\phi(E)dE}}}$

This is possible by selecting the "Micro (spectrum)" radio widget.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Flux Tab, the "All cell" and "Sum of Selected" check boxes allow users to plot a mean flux over all or selected evolving cells i. The mean flux is given by:

$\displaystyle \overline{{\phi}}$ = $\displaystyle {\frac{{\sum_{i}\phi_{i}V_{i}}}{{\sum_{i}V_{i}}}}$

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Reaction Rate Tab, the "FP" and "Sum of Selected" check boxes allow users to plot total reaction rate of fission products and the sum of selected reaction rates respectively. The generated power can also be obtained using the "Power" check box. Power results are returned in the terminal when the graph is refreshed. The "(Un)Select Fissil" button selects (or unselects) all available fission reactions automatically. Note that released energy per fission values (Q_values) are automatically selected according to the transport code previously used (DRAGON or MCNP). In this Tab, it is also possible to plot Neutron Balance normalized per 1000 fissions. Once the user has selected the wanted reaction rates (or all reaction rates for the fissile ("(Un)Select Fissile" button) or for all nuclei ("(Un)Select All" button), the neutron balance is plotted using histogram bars. The box "Threshold to Others" allow user to group all reaction rates less than the threshold (default 0.1 per mil) in a category named "Others" (see fig. 7.2 and fig 7.3). The "Dir" number is the number of the Dirname argument of MureGui and the number following the "@" character corresponds to the time at which the MCNP run is done (thus figure 7.2 corresponds to first Dirname at time t=1004.44 days where a MCNP run was performed)
Figure: Neutron Balance window. In this example, the reaction rates less than 3 per mil are grouped in the "Others" category.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=14cm]{fig/NeutronBalanceWin}
\par
\end{centering}\par\par
\end{figure}
Figure 7.3: Neutron balance plot.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=14cm]{fig/NeutronBalance}
\par
\end{centering}\par
\end{figure}

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Keff Tab, the "Keff" check box allows user to plot the multiplication factor keff of the assembly with evolution time. The "Average Keff" check box computes and plots the average neutron multiplication factor $ \overline{{k_{eff}}}$ of an assembly along its life. It is particularly useful in CANDU reactors at the refueling equilibrium state. The average value $ \overline{{k_{eff}}}$ is given by:

$\displaystyle \overline{{k_{eff}}}$(t) = $\displaystyle {\frac{{1}}{{t}}}$$\displaystyle \int_{{0}}^{{t}}$keff(t')dt'

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Breeding Ratio Tab, users have to select some nuclei among all heavy elements in order to define them as fissile for the calculation of Breeding Ratio (BR) and Fissile Inventory Ratio (FIR). The (instantaneous) BR is computed at a given time t as the ratio of the total production rate of the so-defined fissile nuclei at time t over the total disappearance rate of the same nuclei at the same time. Up to now, only fissile nuclei among 233U, 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu can be defined as fissile and taken into account for BR calculation, with a special treatment for 233U (which production rate is 233Pa decay rate) and 241Pu (which disappearance rate includes its decay rate).

The FIR is computed as the ratio of fissile nuclei between actual and initial time :

FIR = $\displaystyle {\frac{{M_{\mbox{FN}}(t)}}{{M_{\mbox{FN}}(0)}}}$

Note that if the initial fissile nuclei mass is 0, no plot is returned. In the case of 233U selected as fissile, selecting 233Pa as fissile too gives access to the effective FIR values, with each calculation time as a possible End Of Cycle. Indeed this accounts for 233Pa out-of-flux decay, producing 233U without loss. In this case, a warning is printed to inform the user that 233Pa is used this way only for FIR (BR is still computed without Pa-233 defined as fissile, and using its decay rate as 233U production rate).

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the Radiotoxicity Tab (see also section 7.3.6), shown in Fig. 7.4, (only if Lapack library has been used), decay calculations can be performed for the final inventory after an evolution has been done. Determination of total and partial radiotoxocities, heat released and activities as a function of time can be computed for a given system. Note that if, for radiotoxicity post-treatment, MureGui is used from in a directory where the MURE "data" directory is not present just above the current path, you must define the DATADIR variable.
Figure 7.4: MureGui : the radiotoxicity Tab.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=14cm]{fig/radiotox_GUI}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Users should click on the red "Build Mat" button before taking any further action. This will compute the Material and the matrices. The material is based on the material defined in the DATA or BDATA files where all the nuclei are copied, and all their decay children. NO CUT-OFF is used to select the children. By default, spontaneous fissions are not taken into account ; in order to allow it, check the "with SF" button BEFORE clicking the "Built Mat" button. The matrices for decay calculations A are also computed once and for all. The variation of the isotopic vector N is given by:

$\displaystyle {\frac{{dN(t_{c})}}{{dt_{c}}}}$ = - A.N(tc)

where tc represents the cooling time (after irradiation). The solution of this equation is simply given by:

N(tc) = N(0).exp(- A.tc)

This equation represents a set of coupled differential equations for the decays which is solved by a matrix diagonalization procedure based on the LAPACK standard libraries (resolution is performed at the beginning). Inventory composition over time is then directly obtained from the initial composition.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The "Nuclei Extraction" frame allows user to specify what percentage of nuclei of the current composition is taken into account for activity, radiotoxicity, ... calculation. When one choose "Partial fuel extraction" a new window appears to choose the per cent of category you keep: 100% means that all that category is kept. For example, putting 100% for all categories except 1% for U and Pu mean that the radiotoxicity is calculated for the initial composition where only 1% of the U and Pu nuclei are kept, all other nuclei being completely taken into account. User can choose a cooling time before the extraction occurs. In that case, the plot window will start for t = 0 after the core discharge to the cooling time value7.4 ; then, the partial extraction is done and the result is plotted. A dash red line is drawn to show the time of extraction. A "Chars" logo button allows user to plot energy spectra of $ \gamma$$ \beta$$ \alpha$ and neutron emission of "spent fuel" (see section 7.3.6).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the "Miscellaneous" frame, one can also select the value to be plotted: "Activity", "Radiotoxicity", "Heat" released and "Inventory". By selecting the "By mother" check button, the radiotoxicity is computed by mother nucleus (i.e. present at the starting time) in order to see the contribution to the activity of a given nuclei (the daughters of this nucleus are part of its activity). Note, the "By mother" calculation takes much more cpu time! "FP", "MA" and "Total" check boxes allow one to plot the total value for fission products, minor actinides, and all nuclei respectively. A combo box can be used to plot "selected" nuclei, "selected nuclei & their sum" or "only the sum" of selected nuclei (FP and MA check boxes are not taken into account in the sum).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup In the "Irradiation" frame, see Fig 7.5, one can choose the burnup of the spent fuel (i.e., the MCNP step given at a time). The "Dir # num" allows to choose which evolution directory to consider in the case or more than one evolution directory is given to MurGui arguments. The evolution (cooling) of the spent fuel is specified by the evolution parameter: the cooling starts at t = 0, but the plot start at the first value of the "Evolution Period" frame ; the final time, number of time-steps and whether the steps are logarithmic or linear are then given. Note that the graph are on a log scale, thus, initial time has to be strictly positive (minimum value is 1 minute). The number of steps does not affect the results, but only the smoothness of the curve.
Figure: "Irradiation" frame. Here, the first Dirname at time t=0, i.e., the first MCNP step, is used. The fuel cooling will be plotted from 1 year to 100 million of years with 50 log steps.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=15cm]{fig/radiotox_Irrad}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The "Spatial Var" tab allows the plotting of spatial flux (or power deposit) dependence if you have defined spatial variables (see the Cell class and next paragraph). It is present only if Spatial varaibles have been defined. The "Plotting Time" frame allows user to select the time at which the plot is done. The "Variable choice" frame allows user to select what to plot (in the "Plotting Variable" combo box) and with, eventually, a condition on spatial variables ("Conditional Variable" combo box). For example, if a core has been divided in N radial zone and M axial zone, you can plot the mean flux as a function of Z for every radial zone (see figure 7.6). One can also plot this flux but only for a given radial zone by selecting the desired "ring" in the "Conditional Variable" combo box. The "Same Plot" check button, allow users to overlap plots.

Figure 7.6: Spatial Var Tab - This will plot the flux as a function of Z for t = 0 whatever the spatial variables (no condition).
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\par
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=14cm]{fig/spatialvar_tab}
\par
\end{centering}\par\par
\end{figure}

Out flux radiotoxicity evolution

It is possible to evaluate the time evolution of radiotoxicity (or activity, ...) of an user input composition without making any MURE/MCNP evolution. This is of course an out flux evolution (only decays are taken into account). User should create a file name DATA_000 in a given directory (let say "TestDir"). This file must contain

V -1
UNIT
n
Z1 A1 I1 M1 P1
Z2 A2 I2 M2 P2
...
Zn An In Mn Pn
where UNIT is a string among "At", "Mol", "Wgt(g)", "Wgt(kg)", "Wgt(t)" giving the unit of each "proportion Pi" ; "n" is the number of different isotopes (Zi,Ai,Ii) and "Mi" is the molar mass of the isotope. For example, to see the evolution of 2.975 kg of 238U the DATA_000 file is

V -1
Wgt(kg)
1
92 238 0 238.05 2.975
Then launch MureGui as :

MureGui -type a TestDir
and go in the "Radiotoxicity" tab ; this gives a total radiotoxicity of about 1mCi for 238U at t = 0 ; then it reaches the secular equilibrium after 2 million years to 14×1mCi (13 radioactive daughters of 238U+238U).

Frame "Cell Spatial Var" in the Main window

Users can define Spatial variables for cells (see the Cell class). The aim of these variables is only to extract results in a simpler way (this means that you can add spatial variables after the evolution is done and redo the evolution keeping MCNP files without any problems). If such variables have been defined you can plot quantities according to spatial variables.

Suppose we have done the evolution of 3 rings of a cylindrical core divided in 3 parts along the cylinder axis. If, for each of these 9 evolving cells, 2 spatial variables named "R" and "Z" with value corresponding to the typical cell locations have been defined, then the combo box of the "Cell Spatial Var" will allow users to plot for example 235U quantity for all cells with a particular radius Ri (i.e. whatever other Z value, see Fig 7.7) or to plot this quantity only for a given Ri and Zi (see Fig 7.8)

Figure 7.7: MureGui - Spatial Variable combo box selected for all cells of R = 1.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=15cm]{fig/spatialvarR1}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Figure 7.8: MureGui - Spatial Variable combo box selected for the cell located at R = 1 and Z = 0.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=15cm]{fig/spatialvarR1Z0}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Frame "Time Interpolation" in the main window

A linear interpolation is performed on the plotted data for the selected Tab at the corresponding time (and not the selected data of this Tab). Results are returned in the terminal. Note that no time unit is specified, thus it must be coherent with the plotted data.

Figure 7.9: MureGui - Interpolation and Error Bars.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=8cm]{fig/MureGui-Interpolation}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Frame "Error Bars" in the main window

When statistical errors are available, error bars may be added to the corresponding graphs. Note that MCNP provides errors on fluxes, reaction rates and keff values. Thus, the Error Bars Button has no effect on the Inventory and Conversion Rate tabs. In [B]DATA_xxx files, are written keff, fluxes (with their MCNP absolute error), compositions of each nuclei (in atoms), and cross-sections with their error. This error is not really correct because it has been calculated as $ {\frac{{\Delta\sigma}}{{\sigma}}}$ = $ \sqrt{{\left(\frac{\Delta(\sigma\phi)}{(\sigma\phi)}\right)^{2}+\left(\frac{\Delta\phi}{\phi}\right)^{2}}}$ . This is correct only if $ \phi$ and ($ \sigma$$ \phi$) are not correlated...which is obviously not the case. Thus only error for keff and fluxes are really correct.

For the average flux $ \overline{{\phi}}$ on several individual cells (with an individual flux of $ \phi_{{i}}^{}$), we have:

$ \Delta$$ \bar{{\phi}}$ = $ {\frac{{1}}{{V_{tot}}}}$$ \sqrt{{\sum_{i}\left(V_{i}\Delta\phi_{i}\right)^{2}}}$

If the sum of cross-sections is computed, the associated errors is given by:

$ \Delta$$ \overline{{\sigma_{sum}}}$ = $ {\frac{{1}}{{N_{tot}}}}$$ \sqrt{{\sum_{j}\left(N_{j,tot}\Delta\overline{\sigma_{j}}\right)^{2}}}$

For the average reaction rate Nj, tot$ \overline{{\sigma}}$ $ \overline{{\phi}}$ of one specific reaction j (linked to the corresponding nucleus) on several individual cells i, we have:

$ \Delta$(Nj, tot$ \overline{{\sigma_{j}}}$$ \overline{{\phi}}$) = $ \sqrt{{\sum_{i}\Delta(N_{j,i}\sigma{}_{j,i}\phi_{i}){}^{2}}}$ = $ \sqrt{{\sum_{i}\left(N_{j,i}\sigma{}_{j,i}\phi_{i}\right)^{2}\left[\left(\frac...
...gma_{j,i}}\right)^{2}+\left(\frac{\Delta\phi_{i}}{\phi_{i}}\right)^{2}\right]}}$

For the error associated with the power computation, we can used similar formula as for reaction rates, i.e.:

$ \Delta$($ \sum_{{j}}^{}$Pj) = $ \sqrt{{\sum_{j}\sum_{i}\left(Q_{j}N_{j,i}\sigma{}_{j,i}\phi_{i}\right)^{2}\lef...
...gma_{j,i}}\right)^{2}+\left(\frac{\Delta\phi_{i}}{\phi_{i}}\right)^{2}\right]}}$

The Plot/Save/Quit buttons in the main window

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup "Plot (All)" button: Except for the "Cell Spatial Var" frame in the main window where by selecting a variable, the plot is automatically done, you must push the "Plot(All)" button to plot a graph ; The plot window is selected according to the Tab in the main window.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup "Save Data" button: This button is used to save plotted graph data from the selected plot window in an ASCII file.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup "Exec Macro" button: This button is used to apply a ROOT/C++ interpreted (no compilation required) function to selected plot window. See for instance the MyMacro.cxx example in the MURE/gui directory. To use this macro (which does a linear fit of the ith graph), just click on the "Exec Macro" button and type MyMacro.cxx(i) where i is the number of the graph desired.


More about Radiotoxicity Tab

Radiotoxicity of a user input composition (cooling only)

It is possible to obtain activity, inventory, heat of a user input mixture composed of n nuclei as a function of time in a "cooling" phase (i.e. outside of a flux) in a very easy way. User has to create a directory (let's call it "tox") containing a file named DATA_000. This file has the following form:

V -1
units
n
Z0 A0 I0 M0 X0
Z0 A0 I0 M0 X0
...
Zn An In Mn Xn
where units is one of "At", "Mol", "Wgt(g)", "Wgt(kg)" or "Wgt(t)" (At=atomes, Mol=moles, Wgt(g)= mass in g, Wgt(kg)= mass in kg and Wgt(t)=mass in metric tons) that corresponds to the unit of the Xi values input for each nuclei defined by its Zi (proton number), Ai (atomic number), Ii (isomeric state, 0 for ground state, 1 for 1st isomeric state, ...). Mi is the molar mass in g/mol of the ith nuclei. For example, one can see how 2.975 kg of 238U reaches the secular equilibrium with

V -1
Wgt(kg)
1
92 238 0 238.05 2.975
This file is saved in the tox/DATA_000. The activity of this initial composition is obtained by doing

MureGui -type a tox
One can see that the activity starts from mCi and reaches secular equilibrium (14 mCi) after $ \sim$ 2×106 years.

Remarks:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The "type -a" is necessary because the DATA_000 file is in ASCII and not in binary (the default of MureGui)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Depending on your installation, you probably need to set the environment variable DATADIR to the correct path (for example in csh, setenv DATADIR /MURE_install_path/MURE/data)

Gamma, Beta, Alpha, and Neutron spectra of an evolutive material

User can plot spectra of an evolving material. This feature is "hidden" in the Radiotoxicity Tab : press the "CHARS logo" or depending on your installation, the small down arrow, between "Irradiation" and "Cell Spatial Var" to make it appear (fig. 7.10) .

Figure 7.10: MureGui Radiotoxixity Tab
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\centering {}\includegraphics[clip,width=15cm]{fig/GuiRadioTab}
\end{figure}

First of all, spectra has to be built pressing the "Build Spectra" button. It will create a $ \gamma$ spectra for the "Gamma Spectrum" tab, $ \beta$$ \alpha$ and neutron spectra in the corresponding tabs for each nucleus. This step could take a while especially for the Gammas. In the "Gamma Spectrum" tab (see fig. 7.10), gammas produced by decay modes selected in the "Decay Mode" from are plotted.

"Plot Spectrum" frame:

This frame is used to plot either 3D spectra (activity versus energy and time) for $ \gamma$$ \beta$$ \alpha$ and neutrons or "time slice cuts" using the "2D slice" slider of these spectra. For 3D spectra, only one nucleus (or one group among "total", "FP" or "MA") can be plotted.

"Find emitter" frame:

This frame (only for gammas and alphas) allows user to find the emitter of rays of energy E±$ \Delta$E enters in combo boxes (E and $ \Delta$E are both in keV, see fig. 7.11).

Figure 7.11: Find gamma emitters at 185keV±1keV. They are sorted by decreasing intensity (gamma intensity×atoms) and the decay mode is indicated (alpha, beta, ...).
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=10cm]{fig/NucEmit}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

"Save Data" button:

This button can save the last plotted values in either ASCII format or "MCNPSource Input" format (only working for "2D Slice" plot)

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup ASCII format: dump the last plotted data in a file.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup "Source Input for MURE" format: a MCNPSource C++ form file is generated in order to be used for a MURE/MCNP simulation. This source as the energy spectra of the selected plot, it is a collimated, uniformly distributed on a disk of a radius of 10cm source. Particles are emitted perpendicularly to the disk. This can be very useful for radio-protection studies.

"Use binning from file" button:

This button is used to load the energy binning for Spectrum from a file . The format of this file is the same of the one used for Spectrum class (see for example /path_to_MURE/MURE/gui/NEA_Binning_Gamma - energies are in eV):

NumberOfBins
LowerEnergy[bin=0] //lower bound of energy bin in eV
LowerEnergy[1]
...
LowerEnergy[NumberOfBins]
UpperEnergy[NumberOfBins+1] // upper bound of the last energy bin in eV
If a spectrum of a given cell or of sum of selected cells is wanted, check the wanted cell(s) in Flux Tab.

Radiotoxicity of a sample

To compute inventories, decay heat, radiotoxicity and alpha, beta, gamma and neutron spectra of a sample over the time one can use the option "-onlytox" of MureGui.

First define the sample Material :

Material *MySample=new Material();
MySample->SetDensity(Density);
MySample->AddNucleus(Z,A,I,Atomes);
...
and then dump it:

MySample->DumpMaterial("SampleName",Mass,Volume); //Mass [kg], Volume [m3]
Finally open it with MureGui :

Write in you terminal :

MureGui -onlytox SampleName

Spectrum Classes

The aim of these classes is to characterize any irradiated sample in order to create elaborate sources for radioprotection studies. Spectrum class is the base class and have not to be used directly bu via its daugthers (GammaSpectrum, NeutronSpectrum, ...)

Spectrum Class

It's a base class to define energy spectra for $ \gamma$$ \beta$$ \alpha$ and neutrons. This class defines Spectrum objects, i.e. one array store intensities an other store energies. The size of these array are NumberOfBins+1. To declare a Spectrum proceed as follow :

Spectrum* MySpectrum=new Spectrum(EnergyMin,EnergyMax,NumberOfBins); //Energy unit: eV
Creates a energy spectrum with a constant linear binning from EnergyMin to EnergyMax (see Spectrum for more options).

For non constant binning, one can use:

Spectrum* MySpectrum=new Spectrum(EnergyLowVector);
where EnergyLowVector is the vector of the lower bounds of each energy bin (NumberOfBins elements) except the last element (the (NumberOfBins+1) of the vector which is the upper bound energy of the last bin. Other methods allow us to build spectrum binnings from arrays or from a file.

To build a spectrum for a particular radiation one uses the GammaSpectrum, BetaSpectrum, AlphaSpectrum or NeutronSpectrum classes :

XSpectrum* MySpectrum=new XSpectrum(EnergyLowVector); //where X can be Alpha, Beta, Neutron or Gamma.
MySpectrum->Fill(MyMaterial,Volume);
This last method compute the alpha, beta, gamma or neutron spectrum of MyMaterial of volume Volume.

A spectrum can be added to an other with Spectrum::AddSpectrum() but only if the two spectra have the same energy binning:

MySpectrum->AddSpectrum(SpectrumToAdd);
If you add a XSpectrum with a YSpectrum, the particle type, that can be used for an MCNP source, is defined by the one of the object calling the method (MyGammaSpectrum->AddSpectrum(MyNeutronSpectrum) will have for particle type $ \gamma$).

A Spectrum can be dump in a file with (if WithEnergies is true, the energy bounds of each bin is given, else (default), the middle energy of the bin is given) :

MySpectrum->Dump(filename,WithEnergies);
All the following classes inherit from the Spectrum class: AlphaSpectrum, BetaSpectrum, GammaSpectrum and NeutronSpectrum.


GammaSpectrum class

In the method GammaSpectrum::ReadENSDF(Z, A, I, Atoms, DecayMode) where Atoms is the number of atoms of the ZAI and DecayMode is the decay mode leading to the emission of a gamma ray (it is any combination of "A" ($ \alpha$ decay), "B" ($ \beta^{{-}}_{}$ decay), "E" (electronic capture) and "I" (Isomeric Transition).

GammaSpectrum::ReadENSDF() searches in ENSDF files the gamma transition of theZAX daughter(s) from these values : decay constant of ZAX ($ \lambda$ ), Branching Ratio of the decay (BR), Relative Intensity (RI), and the Normalization Factor (NR). It calculates the activity A for one transition of Energy E and fills the Spectrum:

A = $\displaystyle \lambda$×NZAX×RI×NR×BR/100$\displaystyle \left[\vphantom{bq}\right.$bq$\displaystyle \left.\vphantom{bq}\right]$

where RI×NR is the number of photon per 100 decays of the parent for this decay branch. RI×NR×BR is the number of photon per 100 decays of the parent. In order to compute the gamma spectrum of a sample, have a look in MURE/example/SpectrumExample.cxx.

AlphaSpectrum class

Here, the method AlphaSpectrum::ReadENSDF(Z, A, I, Atoms) is almost identical to the GammaSpectrum::ReadENSDF() one, but it looks for alpha ray energies and intensities instead of gammas.

BetaSpectrum class

The method BetaSpectrum::ReadENSDF(Z, A, I, Atoms) finds in ENSDF files decay constant, branching ratio, normalization factor, intensity, and also the the endpoint energy (or data needed to calculate it if it's not present, i.e. energy of the decaying level, Q-value (ground state to ground state) of the decay and energy of the level of the daughter)

EndPointEnergy = Qvalue + EnergyOfTheDecayingLevel - EnergyOfTheLevelOfTheDaughter

As soon as EndPointEnergy is known, the distribution f (E) is calculated using a simplified Fermi theory where all the transition are allowed, then for each bin, the Intensity is multiplied by this normalized distribution.

A(E) = Atoms×$\displaystyle \lambda$×RI×NR×BR×f (E)

where

f (E) = Norm×$\displaystyle {\frac{{2\Pi\eta}}{{1-\exp(-2\Pi\eta)}}}$×W×$\displaystyle \sqrt{{W^{2}-1}}$×$\displaystyle \left(\vphantom{EndpointEnergy-E}\right.$EndpointEnergy - E$\displaystyle \left.\vphantom{EndpointEnergy-E}\right)^{{2}}_{}$

with $ \eta$ = $ {\frac{{Z_{daughter}\times e^{2}}}{{4\Pi\varepsilon_{0}\hbar V_{e}}}}$, Ve = c×$ \sqrt{{1-\frac{1}{\left(1+W\right)^{2}}}}$ and W = 1 + $ {\frac{{E}}{{m_{e}c^{2}}}}$ .

NeutronSpectrum class

This class contains methods which are required to calculate neutron energy spectra. Neutrons taken into account are neutrons from spontanerous fission (NeutronSpectrum::ReadSFData method), neutrons from $ \left(\vphantom{\alpha,n}\right.$$ \alpha$, n$ \left.\vphantom{\alpha,n}\right)$ reactions (NeutronSpectrum::AddAlphaNSpectra method), and neutrons from $ \beta^{{-}}_{}$N (NeutronSpectrum::ReadENSDF method).

Neutron from spontaneous fission

The neutron spectra from spontaneous fission is computed using a normalized Watt distribution W(E)

W(E) = Norm.exp$ \left(\vphantom{-\frac{E}{a}}\right.$ - $ {\frac{{E}}{{a}}}$$ \left.\vphantom{-\frac{E}{a}}\right)$.sinh$ \left(\vphantom{\sqrt{b.E}}\right.$$ \sqrt{{b.E}}$$ \left.\vphantom{\sqrt{b.E}}\right)$where a and b are coefficient depending on the nucleus.

Finally the neutron activity of the nucleus ZAX by spontaneous fission at energy E is :

A(E) = $\displaystyle \lambda$×NZAX×$\displaystyle \left\langle\vphantom{ \nu}\right.$$\displaystyle \nu$$\displaystyle \left.\vphantom{ \nu}\right\rangle$×BR×W(E)

where BR is the branching ratio of the spontaneous fission and $ \left\langle\vphantom{ \nu}\right.$$ \nu$$ \left.\vphantom{ \nu}\right\rangle$ the average neutron per fission. The parameters $ \left\langle\vphantom{ \nu}\right.$$ \nu$$ \left.\vphantom{ \nu}\right\rangle$BRa and b are available in literature and those used in MURE are located in /PathToMure/MURE/data/SFNeutronSpectraData.dat [20].

Neutron from ($ \alpha$, n) reactions

Neutrons can be produced by ($ \alpha$, n) reactions on light nuclei during slowing down of alpha particle in the sample. Here the reactions taken into account are only 17O$ \left(\vphantom{\alpha,n}\right.$$ \alpha$, n$ \left.\vphantom{\alpha,n}\right)^{{20}}_{}$Ne and 18O$ \left(\vphantom{\alpha,n}\right.$$ \alpha$, n$ \left.\vphantom{\alpha,n}\right)^{{21}}_{}$Ne. To compute neutron spectra from these reactions, one needs alpha spectra, stopping power in the media, cross sections leading to different level of ANe and oxygen density (for each isotopes). Default values are natural oxygen density in UOx fuel ( $ \rho$ = 10.4g.cm-3).

The stopping power was calculated for a UO2 media using SRIM[19], ($ \alpha$, n) cross section are from JENDL(JENDL ($ \alpha$,n) Reaction Data File 2005 (JENDL/AN-2005)). The probability pi of an alpha of energy $E_{\text{\ensuremath{\alpha}}}$having a ($ \alpha$, n) reactions on target i while alpha slowing down on dx is pi = Ni$ \sigma_{{i}}^{}$dx, where $ \sigma_{{i}}^{}$ is the ($ \alpha$, n) cross section on target i. The probability pi can be expressed as a function of the variation of energy of the alpha particle on dx : pi = N$ \sigma$$ {\frac{{dx}}{{dE}}}$dE. By integrating the energy of the alpha particle from it's initial energy to 0:

Pi$\displaystyle \left(\vphantom{E_{\alpha}}\right.$E$\scriptstyle \alpha$$\displaystyle \left.\vphantom{E_{\alpha}}\right)$ = Ni$\displaystyle \int_{{0}}^{{E_{\alpha}}}$$\displaystyle {\frac{{\sigma_{i}(E)}}{{-\frac{dE}{dx}}}}$dE

Assuming that neutrons are emitted isotropically in the center of mass, neutrons are uniformly distributed in energy in the laboratory system between a maximum energy and a minimum energy defined by the conservation of momentum and energy (see for example [17] for more information).

Neutron from ($ \beta^{{-}}_{}$n) decays

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup This delayed neutron production has been implemented only for ($ \beta^{{-}}_{}$n) decays ; ($ \beta^{{-}}_{}$2n) decays are not yet taken into account.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The neutron production is taken into account only when both % ($ \beta^{{-}}_{}$n) decays and neutron energy En is given in ENSDF files. In july 2012, only 6 identified nuclei have this two information: 85As, 87Br, 88Br, 95Rb, 135Sb and 137I.

Define MCNP Source with Spectrum object

A computed Spectrum can be used to define a MCNP source (see also section 4.2.2, and examples SpectrumExample.cxx, and TubeSource2.cxx in MURE/example).

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup First define the sample Material than can emits source particles ( $ \gamma$n$ \beta$).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Then define the Spectrum (GammaSpectrum, NeutronSpectrum or BetaSpectrum) with one of the constructors
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Finally proceed as follow (for a punctual and isotropic source) :

MCNPSource *MySource=new MCNPSource(NumberOfParticle);
MySpectrum->Fill(MyMaterial,Volume);
MySource->UseThisEnergyDistribution(MySpectrum,DistributionNumber);
gMURE->SetSource(MySource);
where Volume is the Volume of your sample and DistributionNumber is the MCNP source distribution number (default 800).

Thermal-hydraulics/neutronics coupling

Preliminary Remarks

Some classes and methods are added in MURE to simplify the building of input files or to allow more complex simulations like the coupling of neutronics with thermal-hydraulics:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Geometry builders : ReactorChannel, ReactorMesh
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Thermal-hydraulics flow simulation class : COBRA_buidfile, COBRA_constructor, COBRA_reader.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup BATH (Basic Approach of Thermal Hydraulics) : ThermalCoupling, ThermalDataReader.
Coupling (like the examples given in MURE/examples) is relevant only if temperature dependent cross-sections for MCNP have been provided for each isotope.

General Overview

Simulations of nuclear power plants can need a discretization of the core in 3 dimensions. The accuracy required by users defines the thinness of the core's mesh. If the latter is important, the building of the MURE input file could be very complex. This is the reason why new tools were added to MURE : ReactorChannel and ReactorMesh. They don't add new physics sections into MURE but only use MURE classes to easily create specific input files. ReactorChannel is a MURE compound and creates multi-cellular objects: it can be used to simulate complex cores with different geometries of pins depending on their position in the core.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup ReactorMesh is a MURE class with a double use: it manages filled assembly geometry, and it is used for a coupled analysis with thermal-hydraulics. It helps users to create geometry for basic squared lattice of a reactor assembly. Channels are, together with cylindrical fuel rod and cladding, split up into $ \alpha$ sections (levels) in the Z direction, and $ \beta$ zones in (X,Y) direction. It manages guide tubes containing coolant or control rods and special tubes with an annular or more complex pin cell geometry. All data must be given in SI (distances in meters, power in watts, ...).
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup COBRA class has been created for the coupling analysis with a qualified thermal-hydraulics sub-channel code : COBRA-EN[10,11] (Coolant Boiling in Rod Arrays). The coupling is completely transparent for users: the input file do not differ from a usual neutronics simulation input file.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup BATH solves the heat equation in case of a permanent regime and a cylindrical fuel and cladding shapes. The following estimates should be taken into account:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup heat conduction is calculated in homogeneous isotropic media (temperature only depends on radius)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup simulations are done on average elementary channel(s) (no cross-flow). Several "average" channels can be simulated but thermal-hydraulics interactions between them cannot be calculated.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup The code only simulates a liquid phase (no boiling).

Description of methods

Introduction

A nuclear reactor is mainly controlled by two disciplines: neutronics and thermal-hydraulics. In fact, reactor core temperatures depend on the heat sources, and thus on the distribution of power which evolves in the course of time (calculated by neutronics codes). Yet, these codes require cross sections which depend on the temperatures, and thus on the nature of flow that is solved by thermal-hydraulics codes.

The input file for a coupled analysis is the same than a pure neutronics MURE calculation. Of course, some thermal-hydraulic characteristics must be added (like coolant temperature entrance, pressure,...) but a non thermal-hydraulic physicist can quickly perform a simulation with a thermal-hydraulics coupling. The generation of the COBRA input file happens automatically and without any user intervention as well as the coupling procedure between MURE and COBRA.

The neutronics code calculates the power distribution in the fuel pins, which is transferred to the thermal-hydraulics code. Then, this latter determines new properties in each pin and sub-channel (temperatures, densities,...). Finally, these data are used as new inputs for the next neutronics calculation. Iterations can be repeated until a converged state is obtained or during a step time for an transient analysis.

Meshing grids are different between neutronics and thermal-hydraulics (c.f. figure 8.1).

Figure 8.1: Meshing grids.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=8cm]{fig/grids}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

In fact two different physics disciplines are dealt with, but their solving methods have nothing in common. This is the reason why two different meshes are defined. Consequently classes manage the correspondence and the symmetrization of these meshes. Updates are done using mean values by zones (c.f. figure 8.2).

Figure 8.2: Radial zones and axial levels.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=14cm]{fig/zones}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}
These zones are chosen by the user and are dependent on the precision required. In each radial zone and axial level, neutron flux, reaction rates, properties of materials or coolant and fuel burn-up are treated separately.

Any increase in the discretization must be carefully considered because it may use more computing resources for a marginal accuracy gain, or even, in certain circumstances, cause a loss of precision.

ReactorMesh

The use of this class is needed for the neutronics/thermal-hydraulics/thermics coupling. Nevertheless it can also be used only for neutronics simulation as a simplified way of building geometries.

Utilization for pure neutronics calculation

Construction of materials and sizes of frames is the same as for a MURE calculation. Differences are on the meshing of assemblies. The first step is to build the internal structure of the assembly:

Shape_ptr AssemblyShape1(new Brick(AssemblyLenght/2.0, AssemblyLenght/2.0, ReactorHeight/2.0));
Then the user defins a ReactorMesh object that manages the mesh, the duplication of materials and structures:

ReactorMesh* Assembly1 = new ReactorMesh(7,20); // 7 radials zones, 20 axial levels
It is necessary to specify some frame details:

Assembly1->SetExternalShape(AssemblyShape1); // physical limits
// dimensional definition of the constituent elements:
Assembly1->SetDimensions(FuelPelletRadius, CladdingTubeThickness, CellPitch); 
//
// Automatic differentiation of zones for structurally identical elements 
//                (c.f. fig 8.2)
Assembly1->AddCircleZoneRadius(3*CellPitch); 
Assembly1->AddCircleZoneRadius(6*CellPitch);
Case of a same isotopic vector for materials :

Assembly1->AddMaterials(FuelMat, CladdingMat, CoolantMat);
Or else, specify for each zone :

Assembly1->AddMaterials(FuelMat0, CladdingMat0, CoolantMat0,0);
Assembly1->AddMaterials(FuelMat1, CladdingMat1, CoolantMat1,1);
Assembly1->AddMaterials(FuelMat2, CladdingMat2, CoolantMat2,2);
It can be possible to make more complex geometries, like using exotic pins with for example two fuel zones in a pin :

// make explicit the zone
Assembly1->SetSpecialDimensions(FuelPelletRadius, CladdingThickness, CellPitch, FirstInnerRadius, SpecialPinZone); 
Assembly1->SetSpecialMaterials(FuelMat, CladdingMat, CoolantMat, SPFuelMat, SpecialPinZone);
...
Tube guides can also be introduced :

Assembly1->SetGTDimensions(GuideTubeInnerRadius,GuideTubeThickness);
Assembly1->SetGTMaterials(GuideTubeInsideMat,GuideTubeCladdingMat);
The coolant around this guide tubes is the same as the ones for neighbours cells (same composition, bore concentration, temperature, density, ...).

The placing of SpecialPins and GuideTubes is done using their relative position into a Cartesian reference mark centered on the first cell built by MCNP (center cell of assembly identified as (0,0)).

Assembly1->AddSpecialPin(1,4,SpecialPinZone);
Assembly1->AddGuideTube(-3,0);
Construction of the MCNP geometry is automatically done when users call the method (c.f. figure 8.3) :

Assembly1->CreateGeometry();

Figure 8.3: Complex Mesh.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=14cm]{fig/NewMesh2}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Call of MURE::BuildMCNPFile() or MURE::RunMCNP() methods are performed as during a basic MURE input file, no modifications or adjustments are necessary.

See the documented example in MURE/examples.

Some additional options

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Translate assembly into another position in the core

Assembly1->Translate(dx,dy,dz);

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Create plenum for an assembly

Assembly1>>AssemblyPlenum; // must be done after the call of CreateGeometry()

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Set a maximum volumic source contained inside the assembly with a Watt spectrum

Assembly1->SetSource(NumberOfParticles, ActivesCycles, InactivesCycles);
See the documented example MURE/example/Evolution/RMAssembly.cxx (c.f. figure 8.4).

Figure 8.4: Example of an assembly created with ReactorMesh
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=14cm]{fig/RMAssembly}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Use of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics calculations

Most of the input file for a coupled calculation does not change compaer to a pure neutronics calculation: instead of creating a ReactorMesh object, it is necessary to build a COBRA one (COBRA class inherits from ReactorMesh class). An additional method must be called to allow the building and launching of thermal-hydraulics calculations.

Thus, instead of:

ReactorMesh* Assembly1 = new ReactorMesh(7,20);

one should use:

COBRA* Assembly1 = new COBRA(7,20);
and add:

FuelMat->SetEvolution(); // flag needed for power deposits calculation
                         // set the flag on each fissionable fuel material

gMURE->BuildTallies(); // Tallies are managed by MURE

gMURE->BuildCOBRAFiles(); // call of this method after the RunMCNP()
// it manages creation of input(s) data file(s) to COBRA with the power
// distribution calculated by MCNP and update densities and temperatures

ReactorMesh Output data

A file called MeshZoneData.txt is created: the number of fuel pins, guide tubes, special pins for each zone are quoted ; an equivalent of the mesh MCNP - Zones is also written.

The COBRA class

This class manages the Oak Ridge National Laboratory code COBRA-EN (COolant Boiling in Rod Arrays). It is a sub-channel code that allows steady-state and transient analysis of the coolant in rod arrays. The simulation of flow is based on a three or four partial differential equations: conservation of mass, energy and momentum vector for the water liquid/vapor mixture (optionally a fourth equation can be added which tracks the vapor mass separately). The heat transfer model is featured by a full boiling curve, comprising the basic heat transfer regimes: single phase forced convection, sub-cooled nucleate boiling, saturated nucleate boiling, transition and film boiling. Heat conduction in the fuel and the cladding are calculated using the balance equation.

Some modifications on the source code have been done to optimize calculations on Intel Fortran Compilers (ifort) and to enlarge arrays (parameters IDSIZE in source files).

Input data on operating conditions

Some precisions about fluid mechanics must be given. Otherwise, default values are taken into account.

Inlet temperature (K) :

Channel1->SetInletTemperature(560);
Average inlet mass flux (kg/s/m2) :

Channel1->SetInletMassFlux(2923.72);
Inlet boron concentration (ppm) :

Channel1->SetInletBoronConcentration(1000);
System exit pressure (MPa) :

Channel1->SetExitPressure(15.8);
See the documented example MURE/example/Thermal/C4Assemblies.cxx (c.f. figure 8.5) and some results :
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Power distribution: figure 8.6a
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Exit coolant temperature profile: figure 8.6b.
Figure 8.5: Geometry visualization
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=10cm]{fig/coupe_react}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Figure 8.6: Complex COBRA coupled simulation : 20 axial levels and 4*7 radial regions
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\centering {} \subfloat[3D Power distribution (W)]{\begi...
...g}
\includegraphics[width=8cm]{fig/Tout}
\par
\end{centering}\par
}
\end{figure}

The BATH class

This class manages temperature calculation for a coupled simulation neutronics/thermal-hydraulics with a 2D RZ precision. It is not as accurate as COBRA and must be explicitly coupled by the user but its advantages are :

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup the capability to be coupled with geometry that has already bee built
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup it is an explicit way of coupling, despite the fact it takes longer, users can completely control what is being simulated (it is not a "black box")
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup capability to simulate a lot of coolant, cladding or fuels types: users just need to add them (thermal data and equations).

Capabilities

The code already includes data and equations necessary for simulations. It uses:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup as fuel: uranium oxide and plutonium/uranium mixed oxide and thorium oxide (full or annular pellet)
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup as cladding: zircaloy 4 or 2 and stainless steel 316 SS
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup as coolant: light water, heavy water and sodium.

What is solved

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup heat and mass transfer:

$\displaystyle \dot{{m}}$Cp$\displaystyle \Delta$T = qpA

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup steady-state forced convection in case of turbulent flows:

Tp - $\displaystyle \overline{{T}}_{{coolant}}^{}$ = $\displaystyle {\frac{{q_{p}}}{{h}}}$

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup steady-state conduction inside the cladding and the fuel: Fourier law
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup radiation exchange between cladding and fuel surfaces is implemented but not used (due to a leak of precision on gas composition and evolution of the gas space dimension during burn-up): Stefan law
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup indication of pressure losses (due to acceleration, gravity and friction - loss due to peculiarity like grids are not calculated because it is considerd as empirical data): acceleration is zero because the velocity is assumed constant, only gravity and friction (Darcy frictions model) are calculated
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup thermal conductivity of zircaloy and steel, data on water, sodium, UOX and MOX are from literature.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Nusselt dimensionless number calculation:

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup water: Dittus-Boelter equation Nu = 0.023 Re0.8Pr0.4
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup sodium: Notter & Sleicher Nu = 6.3 + 0.0167 Re0.85Pr0.93

How to add data

If thermal conductivity of new cladding is needed, one has to modify the source of ThermalCoupling class, adding flags and switching cases in ThermalCoupling::CladConduction().

To add a new coolant, equations of dimensionless number calculation are perhaps necessary and data tables must be added in thermal_data directory. As it is done for water and sodium, files containing thermal data must be created : see Water.xls in thermal_data directory.

Adding a new fuel is easier: only 2 tables of data are necessary (density and thermal conductivity : see thermal_data directory).

Contact Nicolas Capellan (capellan at ipno.in2p3.fr) for further explanation.

Use the code

Users should create the geometry themselves. Flags will be added to indicate positions of frames and cells to the thermal-hydraulics code :

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup on materials: flag SetTemperatureEvolution() and only on fuel material SetEvolution()
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup on cells: flag(s) SetTHLevelPosition() (the first one at the bottom and then increasing height) and SetTHZonePosition() if more than one average channel is needed.
BATH is created and launched after the MCNP run.

See the documented example MURE/examples/Thermal/BATHExample.cxx.

Output data

Outputs are created in the directory called Zi_Run_j (i is the "region" and j the iteration number of coupled field).

For each level, thermal results are built together with the temperature function of distance from the center (temperature gradient inside fuel, cladding and coolant, c.f. figure 8.7).

Figure 8.7: BATH output example
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=9cm]{fig/ASTH}
\par
\end{centering}\par\par
\end{figure}


Basic of C++ to understand MURE

Introduction

This appendix is not a C++ tutorial ; its aim is to define roughly commonly used words inside MURE user guide and to allow users unfamiliar with C/C++ to understand examples and uses of MURE. Each main program in C++ is defined as

int main() //or int main(int argc, char **argv) to use argument passed to the program
{
   ...
}
In general, special functions, variables, ... are needed. Then, the definition of these functions known as the header files should be included:

#include <iostream> //standard functions for input/output on the screen (cout, cin, ...)
#include <cmath> //standard mathematical function (cos, sin, ...)
using name space std; 
#include "my_header_file.hex" //a definition made by a user
 
int main()
{
...
}

Class & Object

C++ is said Object Oriented. This means that the notion of variables is extended to a more complete and self consistent form: the object. The variable types are now called classes: for example, the type float of C (real in fortran) is now a class. For this class the difference between type and class is simply semantic. But you can create your own type (your own class) that regroups many other objects (or variables in C/fortran language) of different classes (different types). For example a class Point can have 2 coordinates of the class double:

class Point
{
   public:
     double X;
     double Y;
};
The "public:" keyword means that one can use the objects of this class from the outside of the class. The 2 objects X and Y are called members or attributes of the class Point. To declare an object P of the class Point to be a point of coordinates (0,4), one has to

Point P;
P.X=0;
P.Y=4;
Moreover, a class contains methods, that is to say, specific functions that can act only on objects of this class:

class Point
{
   public:
     void Translate(double dx, double dy) {X+=dx;Y+=dy;}
     double X;
     double Y;
};
P can be translated of $ \vec{{V}} $(1, 1):

P.Translate(1,1);
Special methods of classes are named constructors: these methods have no type and name of the class ; they are used to allocate memory and eventually initialize an object:

class Point
{
   public:
     Point(double x, double y){X=x; Y=y;}
     void Translate(double dx, double dy){X+=dx;Y+=dy;}
     double X;
     double Y;
};
Then P can be declared as

Point P(0,4);
Methods (as well as functions) can be overloaded: 2 methods may have the same name but different arguments:

class Point
{
   public:
     Point(double x, double y){X=x; Y=y;}
     Point(){X=0; Y=0;}
     void Translate(double dx, double dy){X+=dx;Y+=dy;}
     void Translate(double dV[2]){X+=dV[0];Y+=dV[1];}
     double X;
     double Y;
};
here the second constructor has no argument ; it is called the "default constructor" ; in this case it defines the origin point ; the second Point::Translate() method needs an array of dimension 2 as argument:

Point P1; //call the default constructor
Point P2(0,4); // call the "normal" constructor P2 is (0,4)
double dv[2]={1,1}; //an array of 2 doubles
P1.X=2; //set X of P1
P1.Y=2; //set Y of P1;
Point P3=P1; //P3 is (2,2)
P1.Translate(dv); //Translate P1 from (2,2)->(3,3) but P3 is still at (2,2)
P2.Translate(1,1);//Translate P2 from (0,4)->(1,5)
It is usually safe to "protect" the objects of a class from modifying them from the outside of the class without using a class method. One may succeed by using the "private:" keyword. But then one must define new methods to modify them.

class Point
{
   public:
     Point(double x, double y){X=x; Y=y;}
     Point(){X=0; Y=0;}
     void Translate(double dx, double dy){X+=dx;Y+=dy;}
     void Translate(double dV[2]){X+=dV[0];Y+=dV[1];}
     void SetX(double x){X=x;}
     void SetY(double y){Y=y;}
     double GetX(){return X;}
     double GetY(){return Y;}
  private:
     double X;
     double Y;
};
Then, one should not write

P.X=1;
cout<<"Coordinate of P("<<P.X<<","<<P.Y<<")"<<endl;
but instead, use

P.SetX(1);
cout<<"Coordinate of P("<<P.GetX()<<","<<P.GetY()<<")"<<endl;
Of course, this is not very useful for this simple example ; but for larger codes, it avoids bugs.

Header and implementation files

In the previous class Point, one has defined explicitely all methods inside the class. But when dealing with larger classes, libraries, please consider separating the class definition (.hxx files called headers) from the class implementation (.cxx files). Then, one may build libraries with implementation files whereas the header files could be included in any file using the library. For example one may rewrite the Point class header in the Point.hxx file

class Point
{
   public:
     Point(double x, double y);
     Point();
     void Translate(double dx, double dy);
     void Translate(double dV[2]);
     void SetX(double x){X=x;} // here thes methods are very short, 
     void SetY(double y){Y=y;} // one can let then with inline definition.
     double GetX(){return X;}
     double GetY(){return Y;}
  private:
     double X;
     double Y;
};
Not the ";" after the first 4 methods: it means that they will be defined somewhere else. The Point.cxx implementation file:

#include "Point.hxx"

Point::Point(double x, double y)
{
   X=x; 
   Y=y;
}
Point::Point()
{
   X=0;
   Y=0;
}
void Point::Translate(double dx, double dy)
{
   X+=dx;
   Y+=dy;
}
void Point::Translate(double dV[2])
{
   X+=dV[0];
   Y+=dV[1];
}

Note the "Point::" ; it means that the following method belongs to the class point ("::" is the scope resolution operator).

Default arguments

In MURE, lots of parameters have default values. In general default values are assigned in methods (or function) definitions (header files) with the following syntax:

void TheMethod(double x=3);
This means that if one calls TheMethod(5), the value of the argument x=5, whereas a call to TheMethod() will take x=3 for this "default" argument. If one writes

void AnOtherMethod(double x, double y=2);
The first argument must be given and the second one (y), if it is not given, takes the value y=2. All default arguments must be defined after the explicit argumentA.1. If one writes

void ThirdMethod(double x=1, double y=2, double z=1);
then a call to

ThirdMethod();         // means that x=1, y=2, z=1
ThirdMethod(3);        // means that x=3, y=2, z=1
ThirdMethod(3,10);     // means that x=3, y=10, z=1
ThirdMethod(3,10,100); // means that x=3, y=10, z=100

Pointers

We have defined objects of classes. One can define pointers on objects:

Point *P1=new Point; //call the default constructor
Point *P2=new Point(3,4); //call the normal constructor
P1->SetX(1); //because P1 is a pointer on a Point, one use "->" instead of the "." 
P2->Translate(1,1);
Point *P3;
P3=P1; //P3 and P1 are pointing on the same Point (1,0)
P3->Translate(1,1); // P3 and P1 point on (1,1).
Point *P;
P=new Point[3]; //P is an array of 3 Points (it points on the first)
for(int i=0; i<3; i++)
{
   P[i].SetX(2*i+1); //P[i] is a Point (whereas P is a pointer)
   P[i].SetY(i+1);   //thus one uses a "." and not the "->"
}
P[0].Translate(1,1); //Translate P[0] from (1,1)->(2,2)
delete P1;
delete P2;
delete [] P;
The 2 first lines allocate 2 Points (the "new" keyword). One use the "->" instead of the "." to use a method (or a public attribute) because P1 and P2 are pointers. In the declaration of P3, no Point is allocated (no "new") ; the "P3=P1" line means that P3 points on the same Point than P1 ; thus translating P3 will translate P1 (and vice verse). By writing "P=new Point[3]", one allocates an array of 3 Points by calling the default constructor of Point (to declare arrays, a default constructor must exist). Each P[i] is a real Point object (not a pointer). When one use pointers, the memory is not freed by itself: one has to do it manually though a "delete". Here one can delete P1 or P3 but not both ; in the example, P3 continues to point on the address of the P1 Point, but because the memory has been freed, this address does not correspond to anything. To delete arrays, one has to use the "[]" after the "delete" keyword.

Inheritance

One very powerful tools of classes is the inheritance mechanisms. One says that a class inherits from a mother class: all members (methods and attributes) of the mother class are known from the Daughter class. This one may have new methods and/or attributes. Following our previous example, one can define a Point3D as:

#include "Point.hxx"
class Point3D : public Point //here one says that Point3D is the daughter of Point
{
   public:
     Point3D():Point(){Z=0;}
     Point3D(double x, double y, double z):Point(x,y){Z=z;}
     void Translate(double dx, double dy, double dz){X+=dx;Y+=dy; Z+=dz;} //possible if the "private:" of Point
     void SetZ(double z){Z=z;}                                            //is replaced by "protected:"
     double GetZ(){return Z;}
   private:
     double Z;
};
and one has to replace the keyword "private:" of the class Point by the keyword "protected:" in order to allow the Daughter of Point (Point3D) to modify its attributes. But from the outside of Point and Point3D, it is impossible to modify these attributes. The 2 constructors of Point3D start to call respectively the default and the normal constructor of the mother class (:Point() and :Point(x,y)).

Point3D P1(1,2,3); // P1 is at (1,2,3)
Point3D P2; //P2 is at (0,0,0)
P2.SetX(1);
P2.SetY(1);
P2.SetZ(1); //P2 is now at (1,1,1)
P1.Translate(1,1,1); //P2 is now at (2,2,2);


Node tree simplification

In this appendix, more details are provided on the principle of the Node simplification to obtain more optimized MCNP input files. For example, in figure B.1 the Plane number 2 belongs to 2 Nodes and must not be destroyed after the destruction of the included node.

Figure B.1: A tree corresponding to a geometrical object before its simplification. The representation tells whether a node is a union or intersection, then the node address is given, the address of the not of the node (complementary node) is also given if it exists. Nodes in red are usually not removable because of included, bounding or inside shapes (see Node class). For each leaf of the tree, the type of Shape (Plane, Sphere, ...) is given as well as its address and its surface number with a sign (like in surface in MCNP cell).
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics[width=14cm]{fig/tree_disjoint}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Figure B.2: The tree of figure B.1 after simplification. Since one node was included in the other, it has been removed.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics{fig/tree_disjointS}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Figure B.3: An other example of tree before simplification.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics{fig/tree2}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Figure B.4: The tree of figure B.3 after simplification.
\begin{figure}\endgraf
\begin{centering}
\includegraphics{fig/tree2S}
\par
\end{centering}\par\end{figure}

Stochastic volume calculation

WARNING: UP TO NOW SURFACE CALCULATIONs HAVE NOT YET BEEN IMPLEMENTED.

When using Tallies, cell volumes and/or surfaces are needed. In this package, cell volumes are calculated if possible ; when the program is not able to calculate cell volumes for a tally, we use the method MURE::BuildMCNPFile() to extract the volume calculated by MCNP itself (see note C.1).

However, sometimes MCNP is not able to calculate the volume/surface of a Cell. Thus, a stochastic volume calculation is made (again using MCNP). The principle of this calculation is to take a neutron source geometry of a spherical shell directed inwards containing the necessary cells filled with voids. The required volumes are calculated stochastically by MCNP from the number of particle tracks which have intersected them.

The precision on volumes will depend on the source neutron number (that can be modified via MURE::SetVolumeNPS()) as well as the relative size of the cell/source neutron sphere. In the usual procedure, a source sphere containing the whole geometry is searched ; However, the search can sometimes fail, in which case the user is required to give the source sphere characteristics manually with the command:

Shape::SetVirtualSphereRadius()
and

Shape::SetVirtualSphereCenter()
It should be noted that it is not necessary for the whole geometry to be included in the "virtual" sphere ; only cells with unknown volumes must be inside this sphere. A volume warning message is given if the relative precision of the worst volume variance is below 0.5% ; this precision may be change with MURE::SetVolumeWarning().


Important Note

Stochastic volume calculations are used if a tally bin has a volume equal to -1. The tally bin volume is taken from the cell used in this bin. Cell volumes are determined from Shape volumes. Sometimes, we are unable to determine relatively simple Shape volumes because the Inclus/Disjoint method can't return a result (e.g., a shape may be included in another one, but Shape::Inclus() answers 0 (i.e., not included or unknown)). For these cases it is necessary to avoid stochastic volume calculations, whereas if MCNP is able to calculate the volume of such cells, we can use the method MURE::GetMCNPVolume(). The principle of this method is to "run" MCNP in "information mode", then search the print table 60 containing the cell volumes information. For a cell without a volume (i.e. -1), if the volume has been calculated and if the cell has no universe numberC.1, then the cell volume is set to what MCNP has calculated.

To summarize, the MURE::BuildMCNPFile() method calls first MURE::GetMCNPVolume() ; then, if necessary, the MURE::FindMissingVolume() method (stochastic volume calculation technique) is called and afterward the input MCNP file is written.

NOTE: The tally bin volumes should always be provided ; thus, if a group bin or a lattice bin is used, the calculated volume related to that bin...but not to each individual cell composing the bin. Therefore, the individual cell volume remains unknown.

Back-Stage processes: everything you always wanted to know about MURE* (*But were afraid to ask)


Steady-state power: Tally Normalization

MCNP provides raw tallies normalized by source neutron. For reactor applications, in order to simulate a constant reactor powerD.1, one must normalize all tallies by the equivalent number of neutrons per second for a user-given power value. This normalization factor will change as the isotopic composition of the material evolves with time and therefore needs to be calculated at the lowest level of time discretization, i.e., at every RK step, and, a fortiori, also every time neutron transport is performed.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Constant power P is defined by the user once and for all throughout the evolution using the gMURE->SetPower() function . This value is translated into the number of fissions per second.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup At every MCNP step, flux $ \phi$ and average reactions cross-sections $ \sigma_{{i}}^{}$are read from MCNP output for every nucleus in every cell. Isotopic proportions are read from the initial user-defined composition and for all subsequent steps these values are solved according to their Bateman equations.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup At every RK step average cross-sections $ \sigma_{{i}}^{}$, read in the prior MCNP step, have (so far) been kept constant. New values for the isotopic proportions Ni+1 are solved for using former values of other parameters. P is constant by definition : a new value of the tally normalization factor is therefore calculated in order to keep P constant.

Energy Released from MURE fissions

The energy released per fission is around 200 MeV, but the exact value varies by +/- 5% and varies primarily with the mass of the fissile isotope.

By default MURE assumes that the energy released from fission for each fissionable isotope is different. For several common fissile isotopes, the fission energy values are taken from: W.H. Walerk, "Mass balance estimate of energy per fission in reactors AECL-3109, 1968". For all other fissionable isotopes, fitted values are used. The linear fit (as a function of mass) is made for the common isotopes [232Th - 241Pu] and extrapolated to the uncommon ones.

For example (see [16]), in the case of 235U, the energy released by fission Q is given in Table D.1.


Table D.1: Energy Released per fission for 235U.
Fission Product kinetic energy 166.2±1.3 MeV
Prompt fission $ \gamma$ 8.0±0.8 MeV
Delayed (after $ \beta$ decays) $ \gamma$ 7.2±1.1 MeV
$ \beta$ decays 7.0±0.3 MeV
Neutron kinetic energy 4.8±0.1 MeV
(n,$ \gamma$) capture( 6 MeV ×1.42 neutrons) 8.5 MeV
Energy released Q 201.7±0.6 MeV

In MURE, the default value is Q235U = 201.7 MeV. The energy of neutrinos (in this case, 9.6 MeV), is not taken into account.

If a user wishes to use specific values, 2 methods are available. The first one, MURE::SetAllFissionEnergies() allows to give a common constant value to each fissionable isotopes (default=200 MeV) ; the second method, MURE::SetFissionReleasedFile() allows user to give a file with the required value for some (or all) fissionable isotopes. Each line of the file is

Z A Qvalue
where Z and A are the proton and nucleon numbers and Qvalue is the energy released by fission (in eV). When using this method, the Q values are taken as explained above (using the linear fit) except for the isotopes specified in this file.

NOTE: MURE::SetAllFissionEnergies() and MURE::SetFissionReleasedFile() must be called BEFORE any Material declaration to be taken into account.

The fact that MURE takes into account different fission energy released values, means that there will be slight differences in the way the normalization factor is calculated, and therefore slight difference in inventory when the fissile nucleus changes as a function of time when compared with the old method.

How the normalization factor is calculated

The total power delivered by the total number of fissions in a given instant (in MCNP raw units) is given by the double sum shown hereafter :

Pmcnp = $\displaystyle \sum_{{j}}^{}$$\displaystyle \sum_{{i}}^{}$Nij$\displaystyle \sigma_{{i}}^{{j}}$$\displaystyle \phi_{{\mbox{{\textrm{mcnp}}}}}^{{j}}$$\displaystyle \xi$

where the subscript i refers to the nucleus considered whereas j refers to the cell considered. The sum is to be carried out over all cells and all nuclei belonging to each cell's material.

Pmcnpcan be thought of as the power delivered per source particle transported in the global geometry in question : If $ \phi^{{j}}_{}$ is in standard MCNP type 4 tally output units (particles per unit surface per source particle) then Pmcnp will be also normalized per source particle.

\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup Nijis the number of nuclei i present in cell j.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup $ \sigma_{{i}}^{{j}}$ is the average fission cross-section of nucleus i in cell j.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup $ \phi^{{j}}_{}$ is MCNP's neutron flux track-length estimation for cell j.
\bgroup\color{red}$ \bullet$\egroup $ \xi$ is the average energy delivered in one fission ($ \sim$200 MeV).
Therefore, the scaling factor $ \alpha$, by which tallies will be normalized and which has to be taken into account in order to simulate a constant burn-up at the desired power Puser (if Puseris provided in watts and $ \xi$ in eV) is written :

$\displaystyle \alpha$ $\displaystyle \equiv$ $\displaystyle {\frac{{P_{user}}}{{P_{mcnp}\; 1,6.10^{-19}}}}$ = $\displaystyle {\frac{{P_{user}}}{{\sum_{i}\sum_{j}N_{i}^{j}\sigma_{i}^{j}\phi_{\mbox{{mcnp}}}^{j}\xi\;\;1,6.10^{-19}}}}$

An alternative approach (for information only)

For a critical system, if one multiplies the desired power in fissions per second times the average number $ \nu$ of neutrons emitted per fission, one obtains the amount of existing neutrons in the geometry at a given instant. This can be thought of as the intensity of the neutron source needed to achieve this desired power. This value, in neutrons per second, should be equivalent to the value of $ \alpha$ calculated in the previous paragraph. If the system is critical (Keff = 1) this number is constant during a time interval small enough so that the amount of fissile material remains unchanged in a first approximation. If the system is critical and Puser is in watts and $ \xi$ in electron-volts, then:

$\displaystyle \alpha$ $\displaystyle \cong$ $\displaystyle \nu$ $\displaystyle {\frac{{P_{\mbox{{user}}}}}{{\xi\;1.6 10^{-19}}}}$

For our problem example, the first method gives a value of alpha of roughly 8.280 10+12 whereas the second method gives a value of 8.124 10+12 with $ \nu$taken at 2.599. The two values are therefore comparable within less than 2 percent.

Bibliography

1
Méplan O., Nuttin A., Laulan O., David S., Michel-Sendis F. et al., "MURE : MCNP Utility for Reactor Evolution - Description of the methods, first applications and results", Proceedings of the ENC 2005 (CD-Rom) - ENC 2005 - European Nuclear Conference. Nuclear Power for the XXIst Century : From basic research to high-tech industry, France

2
Michel-Sendis F., Méplan O., David S., Nuttin A., Bidaud A. et al., "Plutonium incineration and uranium 233 production in thorium fueled light water reactors", GLOBAL 2005 Proceedings (CD-Rom) - GLOBAL 2005: International Conference on Nuclear Energy Systems for Future Generation and Global Sustainability, Japon

3
X-5 Monte Carlo Team, "MCNP -- A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code, Version 5", Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-UR-03-1987 (April 2003)

4
J.S. Hendricks, G.W. McKinney, H.R. Trellue, J.W. Durkee, T.L. Roberts, H.W. Egdorf, J.P. Finch, M.L.Fensin, M.R.James, D.B.Pelowitz, and L.S. Waters, "MCNPX version 2.6.A", Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-UR-05-8225 (2005)

5
H.R. Trellue and D.I. Poston, "User's Manual, version 2.0 for MONTEBURNS, version 5B", Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-UR-99-4999 (1999)

6
"SCALE: A Modular Code System for Performing Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluations", ORNL/TM-2005/39, Version 5.1, Vols. I-III, (2006).

7
R. S. Babcock, D. E. Wessol, C. A. Wemple, and S. C. Mason, "The MOCUP Interface: A Coupled Monte Carlo/Depletion System", 1994 Topical Meeting on Advances in Reactor Physics, Knoxville, TN, p. III-368 (April 11-14, 1994)

8
J. Cetnar, W. Gudowski and J. Wallenius, "MCB: A continuous energy Monte Carlo Burnup simulation code", In "Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation", EUR 18898 EN, OECD/NEA (1999) 523.

9
R. E. MacFarlane and D. W. Muir, "The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System Version 91", Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-12740-M, (October 1994).

10
Jason Chao, "COBRA-3C/RERTR - A Thermal-Hydraulic Subchannel Code with Low Pressure Capabilities", Science Applications, Inc. (December 25, 1980)

11
D. Basile, R. Chierici, M. Beghi, E. Salina and E. BregaCOBRA-EN, an Updated Version of the COBRA-3C/MIT Code for Thermal-Hydraulic Transient Analysis of Light Water Reactor Fuel Assemblies and Cores Report 1010/1 (revised 1.9.99)

12
J.R. Parrington et al., "Nuclides and Isotopes", 15th edition, General Electric Nuclear Energy, 1996

13
R.B.Firestone, "Table of Isotopes", 8th edition, V.S.Shirley editor, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1996

14
W. Haeck, B. Verboomen, ``An optimum Approach to Monte Carlo Burn-Up'', Nucl. Sci. Eng., 156, pp 180-196 (2007)

15
J. Miss, O. Jacquet, F. Bernard, B. Forestier, W. Haeck, Y. Richet, ``First validation of the new continuous energy version of the MORET5 Monte Carlo code'', PHYSOR 2008

16
M.F. James, Journal of Nuclear Energy, 23, 517 (1969)

17
W.B. Wilson, M.Bozoian and R.T. Perry (1988) "Calculated $ \alpha$ induced thick target neutron yields and spectra,with comparison to measured data"

18
Neutron and Gamma-Ray Fluence to Dose Factors, American National Society, ANSI/ANS-6.1.1-1977

19
James F. Ziegler, "The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM)", http:www.srim.org

20
E.F. Shores, "Data update for SOURCE-4A computer code", Nuc. Inst. Meth. B, 179, (2001), pp 78-82

21
M. Oettingen et al., "Comparison of MCB and FISPACT burn-up performances using the HELIOS experiment technical specifications", Nuc. Eng. and Design, 242, (2012), pp 399-412